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Mishnayos Kerisos Perek 5 Mishnah 2

כריתות פרק ה׳ משנה ב׳


This mishna resumes discussion of the provisional guilt offering addressed in the previous chapter. Rabbi Akiva deems one liable to bring a provisional guilt offering for a case where he is uncertain whether he is guilty of misuse of consecrated property, a transgression that renders one liable to bring a definite guilt offering (see Leviticus 5:15). And the Rabbis deem him exempt, as one brings a provisional guilt offering only in a case of uncertainty as to whether he is liable to bring a sin offering, not a guilt offering. And Rabbi Akiva concedes that one does not bring payment for his misuse until it becomes definitely known to him that he is guilty of misuse, as then he will bring a definite guilt offering with his payment. Rabbi Tarfon said: For what purpose does that person bring two guilt offerings, one provisional and one definite? Rather, at the outset one brings the payment for misuse of consecrated property and its additional payment of one-fifth, as mandated by Torah law, and he will then bring a guilt offering worth two sela and say: If it is certain that I misused consecrated property, this is payment for my misuse and this is my definite guilt offering. And if it is uncertain whether I misused consecrated property, the money is a contribution to the Temple fund for the purchase of communal offerings and the guilt offering is provisional, as from the same type of animal that one brings a guilt offering for a case where it is known to him that he is guilty of misuse, he likewise brings a guilt offering for a case where it is unknown to him.

רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא מְחַיֵּב עַל סְפֵק מְעִילוֹת אָשָׁם תָּלוּי, וַחֲכָמִים פּוֹטְרִים. וּמוֹדֶה רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא, שֶׁאֵין מֵבִיא אֶת מְעִילָתוֹ עַד שֶׁתִּתְוַדַּע לוֹ, וְיָבִיא עִמָּהּ אָשָׁם וַדָּאי. אָמַר רַבִּי טַרְפוֹן, מַה לָּזֶה מֵבִיא שְׁתֵּי אֲשָׁמוֹת. אֶלָּא יָבִיא מְעִילָה וְחֻמְשָׁהּ, וְיָבִיא אָשָׁם בִּשְׁנֵי סְלָעִים, וְיֹאמַר, אִם וַדַּאי מָעַלְתִּי, זוֹ מְעִילָתִי וְזֶה אֲשָׁמִי. וְאִם סָפֵק, הַמָּעוֹת נְדָבָה וְאָשָׁם תָּלוּי. שֶׁמִּמִּין שֶׁהוּא מֵבִיא עַל הוֹדַע, מֵבִיא עַל לֹא הוֹדַע:


ספק מעילות – it is doubtful if he benefited from that which is dedicated to a sacred purpose or didn’t benefit from it.

וחכמים פוטרים – that regarding a sin-offering, it is written (Leviticus 4:27): “[If any person from among the populace unwittingly incurs guilt by doing any of the things which by the LORD’s] ממצות/commandments [ought not be done, and he realizes his guilt]” and regarding a suspensive guilt-offering , it is written (Leviticus 5:14): “[And when a person, without knowing it, sins in regard to any of the LORD’s] מצות/commandments [about things not to be done, and then realizes his guilt, he shall be subject to punishment],” all who are liable for an inadvertent act a sin-offering, are liable on not his not being aware [of having sinned], a suspensive guilt-offering, but one who benefits from that which is dedicated to a sacred purpose where he is not liable for a sin-offering on his inadvertent act but rather, an unconditional guilt-offering, he is not liable for a suspensive guilty when he was not aware/was not informed about a sin.

שאינו מביא את מעילתו – he does not need to bring the money [as his penalty].

שתי אשמות – that if he had been aware that he had sinned after he brought the suspensive guilt-offering, he then needs to bring a definitive guilt-offering.

יביא מעילה וחומשה – the principal of the money when it was doubtful to him if he had benefited from it and his added fifth.

בשתי סלעים – a ram that is purchased for two Selaim (see Tractate Zevakhim, Chapter 10, Mishnah 5), as it is written (Leviticus 5:15): “[When a person commits a trespass , being unwittingly remiss about anu of the LORD’s sacred things, he shall bring as his penalty to the LORD a ram without blemish from the flock,] convertible into payment in silver [by the sanctuary weight, as a reparation (i.e., guilt) offering].”

ואם ספק – this is what he said, but if in his doubt he always stands, it will be a suspensive guilt-offering.

שממין שמביא על הודע מביא על לא הודע – therefore, he is able to bring and to benefit. And the Halakha is according to the Sages.

ספק מעילות. ספק נהנה מן ההקדש ספק לא נהנה:

וחכמים פוטרים. דבחטאת כתיב מצות, ובאשם תלוי כתיב מצות, כל שחייבין על שגגתו חטאת, חייבין על לא הודע שלו אשם תלוי. ונהנה מן ההקדש שאין חייבים על שגגתו חטאת אלא אשם ודאי, אין חייבין על לא הודע שלו אשם תלוי:

שאינו מביא את מעילתו. אין צריך להביא הממון:

שתי אשמות. שאם הודע לו שחטא אחר שהביא אשם תלוי, צריך להביא אשם ודאי:

יביא מעילה וחומשה. קרן הממון שנסתפק לו אם נהנה ממנו וחומשו:

בשתי סלעים. איל הנקח בשתי סלעים, דכתיב (שם ח) בערכך כסף שקלים:

ואם ספק. הכי קאמר, ואם בספיקו עומד לעולם יהיה באשם תלוי:

שממין שמביא על הודע מביא על לא הודע. הלכך יכול להביא ולהתנות. והלכה כחכמים: