Let's finish Mishnayos in memory of those who were murdered in Israel.
Pledge Mishnayos
Mishnah.org Logo

Mishnayos Kerisos Perek 2 Mishnah 4

כריתות פרק ב׳ משנה ד׳


The mishna continues with the last of the five situations in which one offering is brought to atone for several transgressions: A woman who gave birth to several offspring. This is a case where a woman gave birth to a daughter, after which she is ritually impure for fourteen days and then enters a period of sixty-six days of ritual purity, even if she experiences uterine bleeding. Nevertheless, during this interim period, she is still somewhat impure, and it is therefore prohibited for her to enter the Temple or to partake of consecrated food, and at the end of the period she must bring an offering. And during those days of ritual purity, she became pregnant again and then miscarried a female fetus within the eighty days, and then became pregnant again and miscarried another female fetus within eighty days of the first miscarriage. In this situation, when she ultimately completes her process of purification, she brings one single offering for all the births and miscarriages. And a similar halakha applies to a woman who miscarries multiple fetuses from a single pregnancy at different points in time, miscarrying each fetus before completing the purification period of forty days for a male or eighty days for a female for the previous fetus. When she finally completes her process of purification, she brings one single offering for all of the miscarriages. Rabbi Yehuda says: In these cases, a single offering does not suffice for all the births or miscarriages. Rather, she brings an offering for the first birth or miscarriage and does not bring an offering for the second miscarriage, as it took place before the completion of the purification period for the first. She then brings an offering for the third miscarriage and does not bring an offering for the fourth fetus, as it was miscarried before the completion of the purification period for the third fetus.
These are the five situations mentioned in the mishna (9a) in which one brings a sliding-scale offering: For hearing the voice of an oath, i.e., where one took a false oath that he does not have any testimony to provide on a given issue; and for the utterance of the lips, which is a case where one took a false oath about a different matter; and for the defiling of the Temple, by entering it while ritually impure, or defiling its sacrificial foods, by partaking of them while ritually impure; and a woman after childbirth; and a leper at the end of his purification process.
What are the differences between an espoused maidservant and all those others with whom relations are forbidden? The difference is that the status of the maidservant is not equal to their status, neither with regard to punishment nor with regard to an offering, as one who unwittingly engages in intercourse with any of those with whom relations are forbidden is liable to bring a sin offering, and by contrast, one who unwittingly engages in intercourse with an espoused maidservant is liable to bring a guilt offering. One who unwittingly engages in intercourse with any of those with whom relations are forbidden brings a female animal, and one who unwittingly engages in intercourse with an espoused maidservant brings a male animal, as a sin offering is a female and a guilt offering is a male.
Furthermore, with regard to engaging in intercourse with any of those with whom relations are forbidden, both the man and the woman are equal with regard to liability to receive lashes if they were forewarned, and with regard to liability to bring an offering if they did so unwittingly. And in the case of one who engages in intercourse with a maidservant, the Torah did not equate the man with the woman with regard to lashes, as she alone is flogged, as will be explained, and the Torah did not equate the woman with the man with regard to bringing an offering, as she does not bring an offering.
With regard to intercourse with any of those with whom relations are forbidden, the Torah rendered the halakhic status of one who engages in the initial stage of intercourse [hame’areh] to be like that of one who completes the act, and one is liable to bring a sin offering for each and every act of intercourse that he performs unwittingly. By contrast, in the case of relations with an espoused maidservant, one is liable only for completing the act of intercourse, and the man brings a single offering for several transgressions.
This is a stringency that the Torah imposed with regard to the maidservant relative to other individuals with whom relations are forbidden:
That the Torah established her status so that the one who engages in intercourse with her intentionally is like the one who does so unwittingly, as both are liable to bring a guilt offering, whereas one who engages in intercourse with those with whom relations are forbidden is liable to bring a sin offering only when he does so unwittingly.

הָאִשָּׁה שֶׁיָּלְדָה וְלָדוֹת הַרְבֵּה, הִפִּילָה בְתוֹךְ שְׁמוֹנִים נְקֵבָה וְחָזְרָה וְהִפִּילָה בְתוֹךְ שְׁמוֹנִים נְקֵבָה, וְהַמַּפֶּלֶת תְּאוֹמִים, רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, מְבִיאָה עַל הָרִאשׁוֹן וְאֵינָהּ מְבִיאָה עַל הַשֵּׁנִי. מְבִיאָה עַל הַשְּׁלִישִׁי וְאֵינָהּ מְבִיאָה עַל הָרְבִיעִי. אֵלּוּ מְבִיאִין קָרְבָּן עוֹלֶה וְיוֹרֵד. עַל שְׁמִיעַת הַקּוֹל, וְעַל בִּטּוּי שְׂפָתַיִם, וְעַל טֻמְאַת מִקְדָּשׁ וְקָדָשָׁיו, וְהַיֹּלֶדֶת, וְהַמְצֹרָע. וּמַה בֵּין הַשִּׁפְחָה לְבֵין כָּל הָעֲרָיוֹת. שֶׁלֹּא שָׁוְתָה לָהֶן לֹא בָעֹנֶשׁ וְלֹא בַקָּרְבָּן, שֶׁכָּל הָעֲרָיוֹת בְּחַטָּאת וְהַשִּׁפְחָה בְּאָשָׁם. כָּל הָעֲרָיוֹת בִּנְקֵבָה, וְשִׁפְחָה בְּזָכָר. כָּל הָעֲרָיוֹת, אֶחָד הָאִישׁ וְאֶחָד הָאִשָּׁה שָׁוִין בַּמַּכּוֹת וּבַקָּרְבָּן, וּבַשִּׁפְחָה לֹא הִשְׁוָה אֶת הָאִישׁ לָאִשָּׁה בַּמַּכּוֹת וְלֹא אֶת הָאִשָּׁה לָאִישׁ בַּקָּרְבָּן. כָּל הָעֲרָיוֹת, עָשָׂה בָהֶן אֶת הַמְעָרֶה כַגּוֹמֵר, וְחַיָּב עַל כָּל בִּיאָה וּבִיאָה. זֶה חֹמֶר הֶחְמִיר בַּשִּׁפְחָה, שֶׁעָשָׂה בָהּ אֶת הַמֵּזִיד כַּשּׁוֹגֵג:


האשה שילדה ולדות הרבה – As we go and explain how, as, for example, she aborted within the eighty [days] of [giving birth to] a female [child], that she immersed [in a ritual bath] after two weeks of ritual impurity and had sexual relations [with her husband] and became pregnant, and aborted a female after forty [days] of formation, which is fifty-four [days] from her first giving birth, and then she returned and aborted at the end of fifty-four days of this, and for this, it (i.e., the Mishnah) took a female, for with male [children born], we don’t say this, for if she aborted within forty days of a male [child], this second [abortion] is mere water, for a fetus is not formed until forty days.

והמפלת תאומים – even male [children], as, for example, she became pregnant with triplets, and she aborted one [of them] after forty [days] , and the second remained and came out within the days of the first purity, and the third within the days of the second purity, for each of these, she doesn’t bring other than one sacrifice, as it is written (Leviticus 12:7): “Such are the rituals concerning her who bears a child, male or female,” which teaches that she brings one sacrifice for many births, it is possible even on a birth that is before the completion/fulfillment [of her purification] and one that is after fulfillment/completion [of her purification] also she does not bring anything other than one sacrifice, the inference teaches us: “Such/זאת [are the rituals concerning her who bears a child].”

רבי יהודה אומר מביאה על הראשון ואינה מביאה על השני – Rabbi Yehuda distinguishes between [single aborted] births and twins, and states that she brings [a sacrifice] on the first offspring, but not on the second that was born within the completion/fulfillment [of purification] of the first , and she brings for the third, because he was not born within the completion/fulfillment [of purification, for we don’t consider fulfillment/completion for the second [child], for he is like one that doesn’t exist, for since he was born within the period of fulfillment [of purification] of the first, but the third is the beginning of giving birth. And she does not bring on the fourth, for he was born within the period of fulfillment/completion [of purification] for the third, but the third [child] was not born in the midst of the fulfillment/completion [of purification] for the first [child] for the days of her ritual impurity of the first [child] had passed and concerning twins, Rabbi Yehuda also disputes/distinguishes. For even though their pregnancy is as one, we don’t say that it was one long birthing and that there is also a fulfillment of [a period of ritual impurity] for the second [child], but the third [child] is not [liable] for a sacrifice, but rather, if the third was born after the fulfillment of [the period of ritual impurity] of the first, Rabbi Yehuda holds that she brings a sacrifice for the [birth of] the third child/son, but on the completion [of the period of impurity] for the second son, we don’t care for it is as if he doesn’t exist, for as what Rabbi Yehuda states that the second offspring is like it doesn’t exist, and regarding a sacrifice, since it was born within the time period of the first [obligatory] sacrifice, but regarding ritual impurty, he admits that she has the days of ritual impurity [ and all the time that she aborts a male child, she sits upon him seven days of ritual impurity and thirty-three days of blood purity]. But any time she aborts a female child, she sits upon it for two weeks of ritual impurity and sixty-six days of blood purification. But the Halakha is not according to Rabbi Yehuda.

עולה ויורד – it ascends [in value] for the rich, and descends [in value] for the poor, for if he is rich, he brings a lamb or a female goat, and if he is poor, two turtle-doves or pigeons, and the poorest of the poor brings one-tenth of a an Ephah of fine flour.

שמיעת הקול – “when he heard a public imprecation” (Leviticus 5:1), and the ritual defilement of the Sanctuary and its Holy Things inadvertently, and an oath on a statement (i.e., taken by a person to reinforce a promise or an obligation or to confirm the veracity of a story – see Tractate Shevuot, Chapter 3, Mishnah 7)), all three of them are written explicitly in the Torah portion of Vayikra (Leviticus 5:1, 2-4 and 5-11) what they bring for the poor and the poorest of the poor.

והיולדת – with those women who are wealthy – a lamb for a burnt- offering and a pigeon or turtle-dove for a sin-offering. For the poor – two turtle-doves, which are a single pigeon of a bird in place of a lamb. But the poorest of the poor is not mentioned regarding a woman who gives birth. And Similarly, the leper, the rich [bring] two lambs, and poor brings two turtle-doves in place of the two lambs, but the poorest of the poor do not it.

שוין במכות ובקרבן – if both of them are acting willfully, both are flogged as we establish (Numbers 5:6): “When a man or woman commits any wrong toward a fellow man, [thus breaking faith with the LORD, and that person realizes his guilt],” the Written {Torah] compares a woman to a man for all punishments that are in the Torah. But if both of them act inadvertently, they bring a sacrifice, for regarding both of them, it is written, “extirpation” for willful behavior, as it is written (Leviticus 18:29): “such persons shall be cut off [from their people],” and all that their willful acts are [punishable with] extirpation and inadvertent acts are [punishable with] a sin-offering.

ובשפחה לא השוה that the woman is flogged, as it is written (Leviticus 19:20): “there shall be an indemnity [they shall, not, however, be put to death, since she has not been freed];” she [is punished] with flogging and he with a sacrifice of a ram as a guilt-offering. The language בקרת/indemnity, as is read, because we call upon the one being whipped (i.e., her, the maidservant) (Deuteronomy 28:58): “If you fail to observe faithfully [all the terms of this Teaching that are written in this book]” (Deuteronomy 28:59): “The LORD will inflict extraordinary plagues upon you, etc. ”Alternatively, [the word] בקרת means a visitation, that the Jewish court will visit and state to the one being whipped how many lashes he can accept.

עשה בהן המערה (he who passes through the first stage – exciting the sexual organ by contact – as punishable as him who finishes) – the man who inserts the membrum virile alone (i.e., first stage of sexual contact).

וכל העריות חייב על כל ביאה וביאה – and with a maidservant, as we said earlier in our chapter [Tractate Keritot 9a], he brings a sacrifice for each sexual act.

שעשה בה את המזיד כשוגג – if both of them acted willfully, or he acted inadvertently and she willfully, she receives flogging and he brings a sacrifice, but if she acted inadvertently , whether he inadvertently or willfully acted, both of them are exempt, as it is written (Leviticus 19:20): “there shall be indemnity,” and afterwards (Leviticus 19:21): “”But he must bring to the entrance of the Tent of Meeting, as his reparation offering to the LORD.” At the time when the woman is flogged, the man brings a sacrifice, if the woman is not flogged, the man does not bring a sacrifice.

האשה שילדה ולדות הרבה. וקאזיל ומפרש כיצד, כגון הפילה בתוך שמונים של נקבה, שטבלה לאחר שבועיים דטומאה ושמשה ונתעברה, והפילה נקבה לאחר ארבעים של יצירה, דהיינו חמשים וארבע ללידה הראשונה, וחזרה והפילה לסוף חמשים וארבע של זו. ולהכי נקט נקבה, דבזכרים ליכא למימר הכי, דאי הפילה בתוך ארבעים דזכר, האי שני מיא בעלמא הוא, דאין הולד נוצר עד ארבעים יום:

והמפלת תאומים. אפילו זכרים. כגון נתעברה שלשה, והפילה אחד לאחר ארבעים, והשני נשתהה ויצא תוך ימי טוהר הראשון, ושלישי בתוך ימי טוהר דשני. כל אלו אין מביאות אלא קרבן אחד, דכתיב (ויקרא י״ב:ז׳) זאת תורת היולדת, מלמד שמביאה קרבן אחד על ולדות הרבה. יכול על הלידה שלפני מלאת ושל אחר מלאת נמי אינה מביאה אלא קרבן אחד, תלמוד לומר זאת:

רבי יהודה אומר מביאה על הראשון ואינה מביאה על השני. ר׳ יהודה פליג בין אולדות בין אתאומים, ואומר מביאה על הולד הראשון, ולא על השני שנולד בתוך מלאת של ראשון. ומביאה על השלישי, משום דהוא לא נולד תוך מלאת, דלא חשבינן מלאת לשני, דכמאן דליתיה דמי הואיל ונולד תוך מלאת של ראשון, ושלישי הוי תחילת לידה. ואינה מביאה על הרביעי, הואיל ונולד תוך מלאת דשלישי, אבל שלישי לא נולד תוך מלאת דראשון דהא עברו ימי טומאתו דראשון. וגבי תאומים נמי פליג ר׳ יהודה. ואע״ג דעיבורן כאחת, לא אמרינן חדא לידה אריכתא היא ואית ליה מלאת נמי לשני, ושלישי לאו בר קרבן הוא, אלא אם נולד שלישי לאחר מלאת דראשון סבר רבי יהודה דמביאה קרבן על השלישי, ועל מלאת דשני לא אכפת לן דכמאן דליתיה דמי. וכי קאמר ר׳ יהודה ולד שני כמאן דליתיה דמי, לענין קרבן הואיל ובתוך זמנו של קרבן ראשון נולד, אבל לענין טומאה מודה דימי טומאה אית לה [וכל זמן שהיא מפלת זכר יושבת עליו שבעת ימי טומאה ושלשים ושלש דדם טוהר], וכל זמן שהיא מפלת נקבה יושבת עליה שבועים דטומאה וששים ושש דדם טוהר. ואין הלכה כרבי יהודה:

עולה ויורד. עולה לעשיר, ויורד לעני. שאם הוא עשיר מביא כשבה או שעירה, ואם עני תורים ובני יונה, ובדלי דלות עשירית האיפה סולת:

שמיעת הקול. ושמעה קול אלה, וטומאת מקדש וקדשיו בשוגג, ושבועת ביטוי, שלשתן כתובים בהדיא בפרשת ויקרא שמביאין בדלות ובדלי דלות:

והיולדת. בעשירות, כבש לעולה ובן יונה או תור לחטאת. בדלות, שתי תורים דהיינו פרידה דעוף תחת כבש. ודלי דלות לא נאמר ביולדת. וכן מצורע, בעשירות שני כבשים, בדלות שתי תורים תחת שני כבשים, ודלי דלות אין בו:

שוין במכות ובקרבן. אם מזידין שניהם לוקין, כדקיימא לן איש או אשה כי יעשו מכל חטאת האדם (במדבר ח׳), השוה הכתוב אשה לאיש לכל עונשין שבתורה. ואם שוגגין שניהם מביאים קרבן, דבתרווייהו כתיב כרת במזיד, דכתיב (ויקרא י״ח) ונכרתו הנפשות העושות, וכל שזדונו כרת שגגתו חטאת:

ובשפחה לא השוה. שהאשה לוקה כדכתיב (שם י״ט) בקורת תהיה, היא במלקות והוא בקרבן איל אשם. ולשון בקורת, בקריאה, לפי שקורין על הלוקה אם לא תשמור לעשות והפלה ה׳ וגו׳. אי נמי, בקורת לשון בקור, שבית דין מבקרים ואומדים את הלוקה כמה מכות יכול לקבל:

עשה בהן המערה. המכניס עטרה בלבד:

כגומר ביאתו. וחייב על שלא כדרכה כמו כדרכה, דמשכבי אשה כתיב. ובשפחה אינו חייב אלא על גמר ביאה כדרכה, דשכבת זרע כתיב בה, שראויה להזריע:

וכל העריות חייב על כל ביאה וביאה. ובשפחה אמרן לעיל בפירקין [דף ט׳] שמביא קרבן אחד על ביאות הרבה:

שעשה בה את המזיד כשוגג. אם שניהן מזידין או הוא שוגג והיא מזידה, היא במלקות והוא בקרבן. אבל אם היא שוגגת, בין שהוא שוגג בין שהוא מזיד, שניהן פטורים, דכתיב בקורת תהיה, והדר והביא את אשמו. בזמן שהאשה לוקה איש מביא קרבן, אין האשה לוקה, אין האיש מביא קרבן: