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Mishnayos Kerisos Perek 2 Mishnah 2

כריתות פרק ב׳ משנה ב׳


These individuals bring an offering for an intentional transgression in the same manner as they do for an unwitting transgression: One who engages in intercourse with an espoused maidservant, who is liable to bring a guilt offering (see Leviticus 19:20–22); and a nazirite who became ritually impure, who is required to bring a sheep as a guilt offering and two doves or two pigeons, one as a sin offering and one as a burnt offering (see Numbers 6:9–12); and one who falsely takes the oath of testimony, asserting that he does not have any testimony to provide on a given issue (see Leviticus 5:1); and one who falsely takes the oath on a deposit, asserting that an item belonging to another is not in his possession (see Leviticus 5:21–26).

אֵלּוּ מְבִיאִין עַל הַזָּדוֹן כִּשְׁגָגָה. הַבָּא עַל הַשִּׁפְחָה, וְנָזִיר שֶׁנִּטְמָא, וְעַל שְׁבוּעַת הָעֵדוּת, וְעַל שְׁבוּעַת הַפִּקָּדוֹן:


הבא על שפחה חרופה (someone who has sexual relations with a designated maidservant – who is half-slave and half-free and betrothed to a Hebrew slave) – as it states in Scripture (Leviticus 19:22): “With the ram of reparation offering the priest shall make expiation [before the LORD},” and further it is written, “and the sin that he committed will be forgiven him,” to include a willful transgression like that of an inadvertent sin.

ונזיר שנטמא – as it is written (Numbers 6:9): “If a person suddenly dies near him,” – פתע/aforethought – this is inadvertently, and similar it says (umbers 35:22): “Or if he pushed him without malice aforethought,” -פתאום/suddenly – this is willful, but there is no punishment other than through willful [transgression].

ועל שבועת העדות – a sliding-scale offering that is stated for the oath of testimony (i.e., if a plaintiff claims that witnesses have information supporting his case and requests that they testify on his behalf, and they refuse to testify and deny that they have this information, they are required to take an oath to that effect. If the oath of testimony was taken falsely, they are required to bring a sin-offering as an atonement.), Scripture requires on the willful offender like the one who acted inadvertently, for it all of them it is stated in all of them, "ונעלם" /”and the fact has escaped him” (Leviticus 5:4), but here, it does not state, “ונעלם”/:”and the fact has escaped him.” (see also Tractate Shevuot, Chapter 4, Mishnayot 1-2).

ועל שבועת הפקדון – the guilt offering that is mentioned in the oath of a deposit (i.e., an oath taken with the intention of falsely denying a deposit or a debt. One who owes another money or property and denies his obligation, whether the false oath was deliberate or the result of an honest mistake must repay his debt and add one-fifth to it, and he must bring a ram as a guilt-offering) is liable for it for willful/intention transgression like one who does it unintentionally, that is derived [by verbal analogy/Gezerah Shavah see Tractate Shevuot, Chapter 5, Mishnah 1), that they derive תחטא תחטא through verbal aalogy (Leviticus 5:21-22 and Leviticus 5:1): “When a person sins/תחטא and commits a trespass against the LORD by dealing deceitfully with his fellow in the matter of a deposit or a pledge, or through robbery, or by defrauding his fellow; 22)or by finding something lost and lying about it; if he swears falsely regarding any of the various things that one may do and sin thereby (from the Oath of Testimony – Leviticus 5:1 –"ונפש כי תחטא"/”if a person incurs guilt – [when he has heard a public imprecation and – although able to testify as one who has either seen or learned of the matter – he does not give information, so that he is subject to punishment).

הבא על שפחה חרופה. דאמר קרא (ויקרא י״ט:כ״ב) וכפר עליו הכהן באיל האשם [לפני ה׳] על חטאתו, והדר כתיב (שם) ונסלח לו מחטאתו אשר חטא, לרבות מזיד כשוגג:

ונזיר שנטמא. דכתיב (במדבר ו׳:ט׳) וכי ימות מת עליו בפתע פתאום, פתע, זה שוגג וכן הוא אומר (שם ל״״ה) ואם בפתע בלא איבה. פתאום, זה מזיד, וכן הוא אומר (משלי כ״ז:י״ב) פתאים עברו ונענשו, והיינו מזיד, דאין עונש אלא על המזיד:

ועל שבועת העדות. קרבן עולה ויורד האמור בשבועת העדות, חייב הכתוב על מזיד כשוגג, דבכולן נאמר ונעלם וכאן לא נאמר ונעלם:

ועל שבועת הפקדון. אשם האמור בשבועת הפקדון חייב בו מזיד כשוגג, דיליף תחטא תחטא לגזירה שוה משבועת העדות: