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Mishnayos Gittin Perek 3 Mishnah 3

גיטין פרק ג׳ משנה ג׳


With regard to an agent who brings a bill of divorce and it was lost from him, if he finds it immediately then the bill of divorce is valid. But if not, then it is invalid, as it is possible that the bill of divorce that he found is not the same one that he lost, and this second bill of divorce belongs to someone else whose name and wife’s name are identical to the names of the husband and wife in the lost bill of divorce. However, if he found it in a ḥafisa or in a deluskema that he knows is his, or if he recognizes the actual bill of divorce, then it is valid. In the case of an agent who brings a bill of divorce to a woman, and when he had left the husband was elderly or sick, the agent gives her the bill of divorce based on the presumption that the husband is still alive, and there is no concern that in the meantime he has died, thereby canceling the bill of divorce. Similarly, with regard to an Israelite woman who is married to a priest and may therefore partake of teruma, and her husband went to a country overseas, she may continue to partake of teruma based on the presumption that her husband is still alive. Similarly, in the case of one who sends his sin-offering from a country overseas, the priests may offer it on the altar based on the presumption that the one who sent it is still alive.

הַמֵּבִיא גֵט וְאָבַד הֵימֶנּוּ, מְצָאוֹ לְאַלְתַּר, כָּשֵׁר. וְאִם לָאו, פָּסוּל. מְצָאוֹ בַחֲפִיסָה אוֹ בִדְלֻסְקְמָא, אִם מַכִּירוֹ, כָּשֵׁר. הַמֵּבִיא גֵט וְהִנִּיחוֹ זָקֵן אוֹ חוֹלֶה, נוֹתְנוֹ לָהּ בְּחֶזְקַת שֶׁהוּא קַיָּם. בַּת יִשְׂרָאֵל הַנְּשׂוּאָה לְכֹהֵן וְהָלַךְ בַּעְלָהּ לִמְדִינַת הַיָּם, אוֹכֶלֶת בַּתְּרוּמָה בְחֶזְקַת שֶׁהוּא קַיָּם. הַשּׁוֹלֵחַ חַטָּאתוֹ מִמְּדִינַת הַיָּם, מַקְרִיבִין אוֹתָהּ בְּחֶזְקַת שֶׁהוּא קַיָּם:


לאלתר – immediately, it is valid.

ואם לאו פסול – And especially if it [the Jewish bill of divorce] was lost in a place where [regular] caravans are found, and one could say that it [the Jewish bill of divorce] fell from those who come and go. But if it was lost in a place where caravans are not [regularly] found, even after a lengthy period of time, it is valid. And even if it was lost in a place where the caravans are [regularly] found, if there [is known] to the witnesses a distinguished mark of identification, such as if they [i.e., the witnesses] say that it [i.e, the Jewish bill of divorce document] has a perforation on the side of a certain letter, or they say, that we never signed the Jewish bill of divorce with these names but rather on this one alone, it is valid, even after a lengthy period of time.

בחפיסא או בדלוסקמא – sacks in which documents are regularly placed therein and they contain a particular sign that they belong to him.

אם מכירו כשר – this is a matter for itself, and this is how it should be read: If they found it in a small leather bag or in a case, even though he does not recognize it as a Jewish bill of divorce, or that he recognizes as a Jewish bill of divorce, even though he found it in any place, it is valid.

נותנו לה בחזקת שהוא קיים – And we don’t fear lest the husband died and his agency is voided, for we say, that a matter stands on its presumption. But if it is known that the husband died prior to the Jewish bill of divorce reaching her hand, the Jewish bill of divorce is voided, for there is no Jewish bill of divorce after death.

מקריבין אותה – and we don’t fear lest its owner(s) died, and the sin offering of those whose owners died, are considered as if their death is established.

לאלתר. מיד. כשר:

ואם לאו פסול. ודוקא שאבד במקום שהשיירות מצויות, דאיכא למימר מעוברים ושבים נפל. אבל אם אבד במקום שאין השיירות מצויות, אפילו לאחר זמן מרובה כשר. ואפילו אבד במקום שהשיירות מצויות, אם יש לעדים בו סימן מובהק, כגון שיאמרו נקב יש בו בצד אות פלונית, או שיאמרו מעולם לא חתמנו בגט באלו השמות אלא בזה בלבד, כשר, ואפילו לאחר זמן מרובה:

בחפיסא או בדלוסקמא. אמתחות שרגילין לתת בהם שטרות ויש בהן סימן שהם שלו:

אם מכירו כשר. מלתא באנפי נפשה היא. והכי קאמר, מצאו בחפיסה או בדלוסקמא אע״פ שאינו מכירו לגט, או שמכירו לגט אע״פ שמצאו בכל מקום, כשר:

נותנו לה בחזקת שהוא קיים. ולא חיישינן שמא מת ובטל שליחותו, דאמרינן העמד דבר על חזקתו. אבל אם נודע שמת קודם שהגיע גט לידה, הגט בטל, דאין גט לאחר מיתה:

מקריבין אותה. ולא חיישינן שמא מתו בעליה, וחטאת שמתו בעליה למיתה עומדת: