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Mishnayos Eruvin Perek 8 Mishnah 3

עירובין פרק ח׳ משנה ג׳


If both the residents of houses that open directly into a courtyard and the residents of apartments that open onto a balcony from which stairs lead down to that courtyard forgot and did not establish an eiruv between them, anything in the courtyard that is ten handbreadths high,e.g., a mound or a post, is part of the balcony. The residents of the apartments open to the balcony may transfer objects to and from their apartments onto the mound or post. Any post or mound that is lower than this height is part of the courtyard. A similar halakha applies to an embankment that surrounds a cistern or a rock: If the embankments that surround a cistern or rock are ten handbreadths high, they belong to the balcony; if they are lower than this, they may be used only by the inhabitants of the courtyard. In what case are these matters, the halakha that anything higher than ten handbreadths belongs to the balcony, stated? When the mound or embankment is near the balcony. But in a case where the embankment or mound is distant from it, even if it is ten handbreadths high, the right to use the embankment or mound goes to the members of the courtyard. And what is considered near? Anything that is not four handbreadths removed from the balcony.

אַנְשֵׁי חָצֵר וְאַנְשֵׁי מִרְפֶּסֶת שֶׁשָּׁכְחוּ וְלֹא עֵרְבוּ, כֹּל שֶׁגָּבוֹהַּ עֲשָׂרָה טְפָחִים, לַמִּרְפֶּסֶת. פָּחוֹת מִכָּאן, לֶחָצֵר. חֻלְיַת הַבּוֹר וְהַסֶּלַע, גְּבוֹהִים עֲשָׂרָה טְפָחִים, לַמִּרְפֶּסֶת. פָּחוֹת מִכָּאן, לֶחָצֵר. בַּמֶּה דְבָרִים אֲמוּרִים, בִּסְמוּכָה. אֲבָל בְּמֻפְלֶגֶת, אֲפִלּוּ גָבוֹהַּ עֲשָׂרָה טְפָחִים, לֶחָצֵר. וְאֵיזוֹ הִיא סְמוּכָה, כֹּל שֶׁאֵינָהּ רְחוֹקָה אַרְבָּעָה טְפָחִים:


מרפסת (porch/gallery) – a high place in the courtyard of the house and many openings of upper chambers are open to it and everyone descends on one ladder to the courtyard and from it into the public domain, but even though they are not forbidden, for since the gallery/porch is ten [handbreadths] high, as long as the people/members of the gallery will make an Eruv for themselves on the gallery/porch that there will be foot-traffic that is permissible in its place, and doesn’t prohibit (other than in its own place – see Tractate Eruvin, Chapter 6, Mishnayot 9-10).

ששכחו ולא עירבו – these (i.e., the people of the courtyard) with those (i.e., the people of the gallery/porch). But, each [group] made their own Eruv (i.e., one for the people of the courtyard and another for the people of the gallery) for themselves.

כל שגבוה י' – if there is a mound/hill or a pillar that is ten [handbreadths] high near the gallery and the gallery is not ten [handbreadths] higher than the pillar, for the usage of the of the pillar is satisfactory to those in the gallery, the domain of the gallery reigns over it and they use it and not those who are in the courtyard.

פחות מכאן לחצר – it is stated even to the courtyard, that two domains have power there – the gallery and the courtyard, but if they did not make an Eruv one with the other, both are forbidden to use it.

חולית הבור (the entrenchment around the well – increasing its capacity – see Tractate Eruvin 78a) – the rim of the cistern of above, if it is ten [handbreadths] taller from the courtyard, the domain of the gallery reigns over it. But this is so if the cistern will be filled until its upper rim from things that are forbidden to carry them in the Sabbath, so that now, it is impossible that it will lessen from its height, which is similar to a rock that is not missing, for behold, it is equivalent to the bottom of the gallery. But if the cistern is not full or even if is full from things that it is possible to take from them on Shabbat and to lessen it, since by lessening it, it makes it forbidden, but if he doesn’t lessen it, it is also forbidden, for if they didn’t make an Eruv of the gallery and the courtyard with each other, both are forbidden to it.

אפי' גבוהה עשרה טפחים לחצר – even to the courtyard, like to the gallery, and both are forbidden to use if they did not make an Eruv with each other.

מרפסת. מקום גבוה בחצר הבית והרבה פתחי עליות פתוחין לה וכולם יוצאין בסולם א׳ לחצר וממנו לרשות הרבים ואעפ״כ אין אוסרין הואיל ומרפסת גבוהה י׳, ובלבד שיערבו בני מרפסת לעצמן במרפסת דהויא רגל המותרת במקומה ואינה אוסרת:

ששכחו ולא עירבו. אלו עם אלו. אבל עירבו אלו לעצמן ואלו לעצמן:

כל שגבוה י׳ אם יש בחצר תל או עמוד גבוה י׳ סמוך למרפסת ואין מרפסת גבוה מן העמוד עשרה, דניחא תשמישתיה דעמוד לבני המרפסת, רשות מרפסת שולטת בו ומשתמשין הן בו ולא בני החצר:

פחות מכאן לחצר. אף לחצר קאמר, ששתי הרשויות שולטין בו המרפסת והחצר ואם לא עירבו זה עם זה שניהם אסורים בו:

חולית הבור. שפת הבור של מעלה, אם גבוה עשרה מן החצר רשות מרפסת שולטת בו. והוא שיהיה הבור מלא עד שפתו העליונה מדברים שאסור לטלטלם בשבת דהשתא אי אפשר שתחסר מגובהה דומיא דסלע שאינו חסר והרי הוא שוה לקרקעית המרפסת, אבל אם אין הבור מלא או אפילו מלא מדברים שאפשר ליקח מהם בשבת ולחסרו, כיון דכי חסרא אסירא, כי לא חסרא נמי אסירא ואם לא עירבו המרפסת והחצר זה עם זה שניהם אסורים בו:

אפי׳ גבוהה עשרה טפחים לחצר. אף לחצר כמו למרפסת, ושניהם אסורים בו אם לא עירבו זה עם זה: