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Mishnayos Eruvin Perek 3 Mishnah 7

עירובין פרק ג׳ משנה ז׳


During the time period when the Jewish calendar was established by the court according to the testimony of witnesses who had seen the new moon, Rosh HaShana would be observed for only one day if witnesses arrived on that day, and for two days if witnesses failed to arrive and the month of Elul was declared to be an extended, thirty-day month. Rabbi Yehuda says: With regard to Rosh HaShana, if one feared that the month of Elul might be extended, and he wanted to travel in two different directions on the two days that could be Rosh HaShana, this person may establish two eiruvin and say: My eiruv on the first day shall be to the east and on the second day to the west, or alternatively: On the first day it shall be to the west, and on the second day to the east. Similarly, he may say: My eiruv shall apply on the first day, but on the second day I shall be like the rest of the inhabitants of my town, or alternatively: My eiruv shall apply on the second day, but on the first day I shall be like the rest of the inhabitants of my town. And the Rabbis did not agree with him that the two days of Rosh HaShana can be divided in such a manner.

רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, רֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה, שֶׁהָיָה יָרֵא שֶׁמָּא תִּתְעַבֵּר, מְעָרֵב אָדָם שְׁנֵי עֵרוּבִין וְאוֹמֵר, עֵרוּבִי בָרִאשׁוֹן לַמִּזְרָח וּבַשֵּׁנִי לַמַּעֲרָב, בָּרִאשׁוֹן לַמַּעֲרָב וּבַשֵּׁנִי לַמִּזְרָח. עֵרוּבִי בָּרִאשׁוֹן, וּבַשֵּׁנִי כִּבְנֵי עִירִי. עֵרוּבִי בַּשֵּׁנִי, וּבָרִאשׁוֹן כִּבְנֵי עִירִי. וְלֹא הוֹדוּ לוֹ חֲכָמִים:


שמא תעבר – lest the Great Jewish Court would make Elul a leap month (i.e., adding a 30th day to what is ordinarily only 29 days), and there will be two Holy Days, the thirtieth of Elul and the thirty-first, and he would need to go on the first day to one side and on the second day to the other side by making two Eruvin, and place them on the eve of Yom Tov, one on this side and the other on the other and say, etc. (i.e., that my Eruv for the first day will be in one direction and my Eruv for the second day will be in the other direction – like in the previous Mishnah).

ולא הודו לו חכמים – for they hold that it is one [day] of holiness. And the Halakha is according to the Sages regarding the two holy days of Rosh Hashanah. But not because doubt alone they established this lest the Jewish Court should sanctify the thirtieth day or the thirty-first day (as Rosh Hashanah/Rosh Hodesh), and one of them is a weekday. But because lest witnesses should come from the time of Minha/afternoon and beyond (and state that they saw the New Moon), and they would observe that day as holy and the morrow as holy and both of them would be one holiness. But, the rest of the Holy Days of the Diaspora, that they did not establish other than from doubt, for we don’t know when the Great Jewish Court sanctified the month, the Sages agree with Rabbi Yehuda that they are two [days of] holiness. And the Sages that are mentioned here are Rabbi Yossi.

שמא תתעבר. שמא יעשו ב״ד הגדול אלול מעובר ויהיו ב׳ ימים טובים, יום ל׳ של אלול ויום ל״א, והוא צריך לילך בראשון לצד אחד ובשני לצד אחר מערב שני עירובין ומניחן בערב יו״ט זה לכאן וזה לכאן ואומר וכו׳:

ולא הודו לו חכמים. דקסברי קדושה אחת הן. והלכה כחכמים בשני ימים טובים של ראש השנה. דלאו משום ספיקא בלבד אתקן שמא קדשו ב״ד את יום שלשים או יום ל״א ואחד מהם חול, אלא משום דשמא באו עדים מן המנחה ולמעלה, שנוהגין אותו היום קודש ולמחר קודש ותרוייהו קדושה אחת. אבל בשאר ימים טובים של גליות דלא אתקון אלא מספיקא דלא ידעינן מתי קדשו בית דין הגדול את החדש, מודים חכמים לרבי יהודה דשתי קדושות הן. וחכמים האמורים כאן הוא רבי יוסי: