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Mishnayos Eruvin Perek 10 Mishnah 3

עירובין פרק י׳ משנה ג׳


One who was reading a sacred book in scroll form on Shabbat on an elevated, wide threshold, and the book rolled from his hand into the public domain, he may roll it back to himself, since one of its ends remains in his hand. If he was reading on top the roof, which is a full-fledged private domain, and the book rolled from his hand, as long as the edge of the book did not reach within ten handbreadths above the public domain, the book is still in its own domain, and he may roll it back to himself. However, once the book has reached within ten handbreadths above the public domain, it is prohibited to roll the book back to oneself. In that case, he may only turn it over onto the side with writing, so that the writing of the book will be facedown and not exposed and degraded. Rabbi Yehuda says: Even if the scroll is removed only a needle breadth from the ground, he rolls it back to himself. Rabbi Shimon says: Even if the scroll is on the ground itself, he rolls it back to himself, as you have nothing that was instituted as a rabbinic decree to enhance the character of Shabbat as a day of rest that stands as an impediment before the rescue of sacred writings.

הָיָה קוֹרֵא בַסֵּפֶר עַל הָאַסְקֻפָּה, נִתְגַּלְגֵּל הַסֵּפֶר מִיָּדוֹ, גּוֹלְלוֹ אֶצְלוֹ. הָיָה קוֹרֵא בְרֹאשׁ הַגַּג וְנִתְגַּלְגֵּל הַסֵּפֶר מִיָּדוֹ, עַד שֶׁלֹּא הִגִּיעַ לַעֲשָׂרָה טְפָחִים, גּוֹלְלוֹ אֶצְלוֹ. מִשֶּׁהִגִּיעַ לַעֲשָׂרָה טְפָחִים, הוֹפְכוֹ עַל הַכְּתָב. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, אֲפִלּוּ אֵין מְסֻלָּק מִן הָאָרֶץ אֶלָּא כִמְלֹא מַחַט, גּוֹלְלוֹ אֶצְלוֹ. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמֵר, אֲפִלּוּ בָאָרֶץ עַצְמוֹ גּוֹלְלוֹ אֶצְלוֹ, שֶׁאֵין לְךָ דָּבָר מִשּׁוּם שְׁבוּת עוֹמֵד בִּפְנֵי כִתְבֵי הַקֹּדֶשׁ:


הקורא בספר – all of their books were rolled like our Torah scrolls.

האסקופה – a kind of balcony/portico that is in front of the entrance of the house and it is a marked off plot in a public thoroughfare (which cannot be classified as either private property or as a public thoroughfare).

גוללו אצלו – since for one head is in his hand.

לעשרה טפחים – the lower parts that are near the ground of the public domain, for if the tie/knot is not in his hand, it is prohibited, according to the Torah (to roll it back), and we make the decree that the tie in his hand is on account of when the tie is not in his hand. But in the Gemara (Talmud Eruvin 98a), an object is raised for it does not rest, that is to say, even though it arrived at the ten lower handbreadths, there is no Torah prohibition here, even if he did not have the knot/tie in his hand, since it did not rest in the public domain, and we answer, such as case that there was there a slanting wall, and the scroll came to rest on the protruding part of the wall of the ten lower handbreadths, which is as if it came to rest in the public domain, but if the the knot was not in his hand, it would be a Torah obligation [that is violated] if he brings hit near him. But our Mishnah is taught deficiently and this is how it should be taught: if it arrived to the ten handbreadths from the ground, they turn over upon the written side. When is this said? With a slanting wall that rests, but with a wall that it not slanted, roll it back to himself, according to Rabbi Yehuda, for Rabbi Yehuda states that even if it is removed above the ground only a needle’s thickness, he may roll it back to himself, for we require resting upon something.

הופכו על הכתב – that the letters will be towards the wall in order that it not lie so much in disrepute, and we leave it there until it becomes dark [on Saturday night].

דבר משום שבות – such as the case when the knot/tie is in his hand, and if it is not, this is the rest/abstention from any pursuit forbidden on Shabbat or a Jewish holy day/festival by the Rabbis as being out of keeping with the importance and sanctity of this day, if he comes to roll it up towards himself, for he is not liable from the Torah other than if the scroll left his hand completely and came to rest in the public domain, and he came to uproot it from the public domain and to place it in the private domain, but the Halakah is not according to Rabbi Shimon.

הקורא בספר. כל ספרים שלהם היו נגללים כס״ת שלנו:

האסקופה. כעין אצטבא שלפני פתח הבית, וכרמלית היא:

גוללו אצלו. הואיל וראשו אחד בידו:

לעשרה טפחים. התחתונים הסמוכים לקרקע של רה״ר, דאם אין אגדו בידו הוי איסור דאורייתא, וגזרינן אגדו בידו אטו שאין אגדו בידו. ובגמרא פריך והא לא נח, כלומר אע״פ שהגיע לעשרה טפחים התחתונים אין כאן איסורא דאורייתא, אפילו לא היה אגדו בידו שהרי לא נח ברה״ר, ומשני כגון שהיה שם כותל משופע, ונח הספר על בליטת הכותל של עשרה טפחים התחתונים, דהוי כאילו נח ברה״ר, ואם לא היה אגדו בידו הוי חיובא דאורייתא אם היה מביאו אצלו. ומתניתין חסורי מחסרא והכי קתני, הגיע לעשרה טפחים מן הארץ הופכו על הכתב במה דברים אמורים בכותל משופע דנח אבל בכותל שאינו משופע גוללו אצלו, דברי רבי יהודה, שרבי יהודה אומר אפילו אינו מסולק מן הארץ אלא מלא החוט גוללו אצלו דבעינן הנחה ע״ג משהו:

הופכו על הכתב. האותיות כלפי הכותל, שלא יהא מוטל כל כך בבזיון, ומניחו שם עד שתחשך:

דבר משום שבות. כגון זה שאגדו בידו וליכא כי אם שבות דרבנן אם בא לגוללו אצלו, שאין חייב מן התורה אלא א״כ יצא הספר כולו מידו ונח ברה״ר ובא לעקרו מרה״ר ולהניחו ברה״י. ואין הלכה כר״ש: