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Mishnayos Eruchin Perek 8 Mishnah 5

ערכין פרק ח׳ משנה ה׳


In the case of one who dedicates his son or his daughter, or his Hebrew slave or maidservant, or his purchased field, those items are not considered dedicated, as a person may not dedicate an item that is not his. Priests and Levites may not dedicate their property; this is the statement of Rabbi Yehuda. Rabbi Shimon says: Priests may not dedicate their property, as all dedicated property is theirs; it is one of the priestly gifts, as the verse states: “Everything dedicated in Israel shall be yours” (Numbers 18:14). But Levites may dedicate their property, as dedicated property is not theirs. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said: The statement of Rabbi Yehuda appears to be correct with regard to land, as it is stated about the land of the Levites: “But the fields of the open land surrounding their cities may not be sold, as that is their perpetual possession” (Leviticus 25:34), and they cannot renounce that land. And the statement of Rabbi Shimon appears to be correct with regard to movable property, which the Levites may dedicate, as dedicated property is not theirs. It is a gift for the priests, not the Levites.

הַמַּחֲרִים בְּנוֹ וּבִתּוֹ, עַבְדּוֹ וְשִׁפְחָתוֹ הָעִבְרִים, וּשְׂדֵה מִקְנָתוֹ, אֵינָן מֻחְרָמִים, שֶׁאֵין אָדָם מַחֲרִים דָּבָר שֶׁאֵינוֹ שֶׁלּוֹ. כֹּהֲנִים וּלְוִיִּם אֵינָן מַחֲרִימִין, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי יְהוּדָה. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמֵר, הַכֹּהֲנִים אֵינָן מַחֲרִימִין, שֶׁהַחֲרָמִים שֶׁלָּהֶם. הַלְוִיִּם מַחֲרִימִים, שֶׁאֵין הַחֲרָמִים שֶׁלָּהֶן. רַבִּי אוֹמֵר, נִרְאִים דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי יְהוּדָה בַּקַּרְקָעוֹת, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא כה), כִּי אֲחֻזַּת עוֹלָם הוּא לָהֶם, וְדִבְרֵי רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בְּמִטַּלְטְלִים, שֶׁאֵין הַחֲרָמִים שֶׁלָּהֶם:


שאין אדם מחרים דבר שאינו שלו – for his daughter, assuming that he can sell her while she is a minor, he is not able to sell her when she is a young woman.

שהחרמים שלהם – as it is written (Numbers 18:14): “ Everything that has been proscribed in Israel shall be yours (see Leviticus 27:28 as well),” and since it is his (i.e., the Kohen’s) what benefit would there with this if he would devote it to priestly or sacred use, he himself has possession of it and he does not give it to another Kohen.

נראין דברי ר' יהודה (it appears that the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda is correct) – this is what he said: the words of Rabbi Yehuda appear correct to Rabbi Shimon, for Rabbi Shimon agrees with Rabbi Yehuda and holds like him regarding land/real estate. But Rabbi Shimon did not speak other than about movables, because the Levites do not have things that are devoted to priestly or sacred use. But Rabbi Yehuda holds that an analogy was made between movable things to an ancestral field, as it is written (Leviticus 27:28): “but of all that anyone owns, be it man or beast of land of his holding,” just as ancestral land the Levities do not devote to the Kohen or to sacred use, as it is written (Leviticus 25:34): “[But the unenclosed land about their cities cannot be sold,] for that is their holding for all time,” even movable properties, the Levities cannot devote to priestly or sacred use. But Rabbi Shimon does not make this analogy and since Rabbi [Judah the Prince] goes down to explain the matter of Rabbi Shimon in what he agrees with Rabbi Yehuda and in what he disputes him. We learn from it the Halakha is according to Rabbi Shimon.

שאין אדם מחרים דבר שאינו שלו. ובתו נהי דיכול למכרה בקטנותה, אינו יכול למכרה בנערותה:

שהחרמים שלהם. דכתיב (במדבר י״ח:י״ד) כל חרם בישראל לך יהיה, וכיון דדידיה הוי, מה הנאה בכך אם היה מחרים, איהו גופיה זכי ביה ולא יהיב ליה לכהן אחר:

נראין דברי ר׳ יהודה. הכי קאמר, נראין דברי ר׳ יהודה לר׳ שמעון, דמודה לו ר׳ שמעון לר׳ יהודה וסובר כמותו בקרקעות, ולא דיבר ר׳ שמעון אלא במטלטלין, לפי שאין החרמים של לוים. ור׳ יהודה סבר, הוקשו מטלטלין לשדה אחוזה, דכתיב (ויקרא כ״ז:כ״ח) מכל אשר לו מאדם ובהמה ומשדה אחוזתו, מה שדה אחוזה אין הלוים מחרימים כדכתיב כי אחוזת עולם היא להם, אף מטלטלין אין לוים מחרימים. ור׳ שמעון לית ליה האי הקישא. ומדנחית רבי לפרושי מלתיה דר׳ שמעון במה מודה לרבי יהודה ובמה נחלק עליו, ש״מ דהלכה כר׳ שמעון: