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Mishnayos Brachos Perek 3 Mishnah 5

ברכות פרק ג׳ משנה ה׳


This mishna contains various statements with regard to individuals with different types of ritual impurity as well as the need to distance oneself from filth and impurity. One who was standing in prayer and he recalled that he experienced a seminal emission, and according to this opinion he is prohibited from praying, should not interrupt his prayer, rather he should abridge each individual blessing. They stated a general principle: One who descended to immerse himself, if he is able to ascend, cover himself with a garment, and recite the morning Shema before sunrise, he should ascend, cover himself, and recite Shema, and if not, he should cover himself in the water and recite Shema there. He may not, however, cover himself in either foul water, or water in which flax was soaked, until he pours other water into it. And in general, how far must one distance himself from urine and feces in order to recite Shema? At least four cubits.

הָיָה עוֹמֵד בַּתְּפִלָּה, וְנִזְכַּר שֶׁהוּא בַעַל קְרִי, לֹא יַפְסִיק, אֶלָּא יְקַצֵּר. יָרַד לִטְבֹּל, אִם יָכוֹל לַעֲלוֹת וּלְהִתְכַּסּוֹת וְלִקְרוֹת עַד שֶׁלֹּא תָנֵץ הַחַמָּה, יַעֲלֶה וְיִתְכַּסֶּה וְיִקְרָא. וְאִם לָאו, יִתְכַּסֶּה בַמַּיִם וְיִקְרָא. אֲבָל לֹא יִתְכַּסֶּה, לֹא בַמַּיִם הָרָעִים וְלֹא בְמֵי הַמִּשְׁרָה, עַד שֶׁיַּטִּיל לְתוֹכָן מָיִם. וְכַמָּה יַרְחִיק מֵהֶם וּמִן הַצּוֹאָה, אַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת:


לא יפסיק – [He should not interrupt] his prayer completely, but rather shorten each blessing recited.

עד דלא תנץ החמה – Since the ultra-pious ones are exacting upon themselves to complete (the Amidah) with sunrise, as it states (Psalms 72:5), “Let them fear You as long as the sun shines [while the moon lasts, generations on end].”

יתכסה במים – and especially in turbid waters, where he cannot view his virile membrum but not in clear waters.

במים רעים – badly smelling waters

במי משרה – where they steep flax in them

עד שיטיל לתוכן מים – Our Mishnah is elliptical [and is missing something] and this is what should be taught: that he should not recite [the Shema] near urine until he places water in it and the measure of the water that he should place in it [to negate] the urine from one urination would be [the equivalent of] one-fourth of a LOG (1 LOG = 6 eggs in volume).

וכמה ירחיק מהם – [He should distance himself] from the urine so that he did not place in them water and from his defecation.

ארבע אמות – And especially o his sides or in back of him but in front of him, he should distance [himself as far as he can see.

לא יפסיק. תפלתו לגמרי אלא יקצר כל ברכה וברכה:

ולקרות עד שלא תנץ החמה. שהותיקין מדקדקים על עצמן לגמור אותה עם הנץ החמה, דכתיב (תהילים ע״ב:ה׳) ייראוך עם שמש:

יתכסה במים. ודוקא מים עכורים שאין לבו רואה את הערוה, אבל צלולים לא:

במים הרעים. מים סרוחים:

במי המשרה. מים ששורין בהם פשתן:

עד שיטיל לתוכן מים. חסורי מחסרא והכי קתני, ולא יקרא אצל מי רגלים עד שיתן לתוכן מים, ושיעור המים שיטיל למי רגלים של פעם אחת רביעית:

וכמה ירחיק מהם. מן המי רגלים שלא הטיל לתוכן מים, ומן הצואה:

ארבע אמות. ודוקא כשהוא לצדדים או לאחריו אבל לפניו מרחיק כמלא עיניו: