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Mishnayos Brachos Perek 3 Mishnah 4

ברכות פרק ג׳ משנה ד׳


Ezra the Scribe decreed that one who is ritually impure because of a seminal emission may not engage in matters of Torah until he has immersed in a ritual bath and purified himself. This halakha was accepted over the course of many generations; however, many disputes arose with regard to the Torah matters to which it applies. Regarding this, the mishna says: If the time for the recitation of Shema arrived and one is impure due to a seminal emission, he may contemplate Shema in his heart, but neither recites the blessings preceding Shema, nor the blessings following it. Over food which, after partaking, one is obligated by Torah law to recite a blessing, one recites a blessing afterward, but one does not recite a blessing beforehand, because the blessing recited prior to eating is a requirement by rabbinic law. And in all of these instances Rabbi Yehuda says: He recites a blessing beforehand and thereafter in both the case of Shema and in the case of food.

בַּעַל קֶרִי מְהַרְהֵר בְּלִבּוֹ וְאֵינוֹ מְבָרֵךְ, לֹא לְפָנֶיהָ וְלֹא לְאַחֲרֶיהָ. וְעַל הַמָּזוֹן מְבָרֵךְ לְאַחֲרָיו, וְאֵינוֹ מְבָרֵךְ לְפָנָיו. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, מְבָרֵךְ לִפְנֵיהֶם וּלְאַחֲרֵיהֶם:


בעל קרי – Ezra (444 BCE) decreed that a person who suffered a nocturnal emission/pollution should not read from the Torah, whether he saw the emission as an unavoidable accident or whether it occurred willingly until he immerses himself [in a Mikveh/ritual bath], and not because of [ritual] defilement or ritual purity since the words of the Torah cannot receive defilement but in order that Sages should not be found with their wives like chickens.

מהרהר – He recites the Shema to himself when the time arrives for the recitation of the Shema.

ואינו מברך לפניה ולאחריה – And even meditating to himself since these blessings are not a Torah-requirement (the blessings before and after the Shema), the Rabbis did not require it of him.

ועל המזון מברך לאחריה – Since it is an obligation of the Torah (the recitation of the Blessing following the Meal).

But he does not recite the blessing before, since it is not a Torah-requirement, and the Halakha has already been decided that [the requirement of] immersion has been voided, and those who have had a nocturnal emission recite the Shema in the normal manner and engage in Torah [study] and pray, reciting all the blessings and he should not contest the legality of the matter.

בעל קרי. עזרא תקן שלא יקרא בעל קרי בתורה בין שראה קרי לאונסו בין לרצונו עד שיטבול. ולא מפני טומאה וטהרה שאין דברי תורה מקבלין טומאה אלא כדי שלא יהיו תלמידי חכמים מצויין אצל נשותיהן כתרנגולים:

מהרהר. ק״ש בלבו כשהגיע זמן המקרא:

ואינו מברך לפניה ולאחריה. ואפילו בהרהור, כיון דברכות לאו דאורייתא לא אצרכוהו רבנן:

ועל המזון מברך לאחריו. דחיובא דאורייתא הוא:

ואינו מברך לפניו. דלאו חיובא דאורייתא היא. וכבר נפסקה ההלכה דבטלוה לטבילותא, ובעלי קריין קורין ק״ש כדרכן ועוסקין בתורה ומתפללין ומברכין כל הברכות ואין מערער בדבר: