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Mishnayos Beitzah Perek 2 Mishnah 7

ביצה פרק ב׳ משנה ז׳


Rabban Gamliel also said three things as leniencies, in opposition to the view of most of the Sages: One may sweep the room of the couches on a Festival, i.e., the dining room, where they would recline on couches to eat, as there is no concern that by sweeping the room one might come to fill in the holes and level the ground. And one may place incense consisting of fragrant herbs on burning coals in order to perfume one’s house on a Festival. And one may prepare a whole kid goat, meaning a kid goat roasted whole, with its entrails over its head, on the night of Passover, as was the custom when they roasted the Paschal lamb in the Temple. However, the Rabbis prohibit all three practices: It is prohibited to sweep lest one come to level the ground, it is prohibited to burn incense because it does not meet the criteria of permitted food preparation, and it is prohibited to eat a kid that was roasted whole on the night of Passover because it would appear as if he were eating consecrated food outside the Temple.

אַף הוּא אָמַר שְׁלֹשָׁה דְבָרִים לְהָקֵל, מְכַבְּדִין בֵּין הַמִּטּוֹת, וּמַנִּיחִין אֶת הַמֻּגְמָר בְּיוֹם טוֹב, וְעוֹשִׂין גְּדִי מְקֻלָּס בְּלֵילֵי פְסָחִים. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹסְרִין:


מכבדין את המטות – when the eat there (they sweep between the couches). For they normally recline to eat on top of beds and because it is such a small place, they are not suspect lest it make indentations, as we would fear regarding a large house and it is impossible that there wouldn’t be an indentation/hole.

מוגמר – frankincense on top of the coals to smell it, but to perfume the utensils, it is the words of everyone that it is prohibited.

מקולס – its legs, and its innards are hanging outside of it [on its side] when they are roasting it, and they do this in memory of the Passover sacrifice, as it is written concerning it (Exodus 12:9): “[Do not eat any of it raw, or cooked in any way with water, but roasted-] head, legs and entrails – over the fire.” [The word] מקולס/an animal roasted in its entrails and legs on the head – is like this hero whose weaponry was with him (a reference to Goliath in I Samuel 17:5 who had a “bronze helmet/כובע נחשת ) and the Aramaic translation of “bronze helmet” is a bronze helmet (see also Rashi to Zebahim 88b). But Maimonides explained the word מקולס as meaning honorable, in the manner of praise.

וחכמים אוסרין – [The Sages forbid] all three. Sweeping because it makes indentations, and the spices put upon the coals/perfume because it is not necessary for every person, for it is not other than for those spoiled and those who indulge themselves in pleasures and to one who has a bad odor. The spices placed upon the coals – because it appears like one who is eating Holy objects outside [the Temple]. And the Halakha is according to the Sages.

מכבדין בין המטות. שאוכלין שם. שרגילים להסב ולאכול על גבי מטות. ומפני שהוא מקום מועט לא חיישינן שמא ישוה גומות כדחיישינן גבי בית שהוא גדול ואי אפשר שלא יהיה שם גומא:

מוגמר. לבונה על גבי גחלים להריח בה. אבל לגמר את הכלים דברי הכל אסור:

מקולס. כרעיו ובני מעיו תלויין חוצה לו [בצדו] כשצולהו, והיו עושים זכר לפסח דכתיב ביה (שמות י״ב:ט׳) ראשו על כרעיו ועל קרבו. מקולס כגבור זה שכלי זייניו עמו. תרגום וכובע נחשת, וקולסא דנחשא. ורמב״ם פירש מקולס מכובד׳ לשון קילוס:

וחכמים אוסרין. בשלשתן. כיבוד, משום אשוויי גומות. ומוגמר, משום דלאו צורך לכל נפש הוא שאינו אלא למפונקים ולמעונגים ולמי שריחו רע. מקולס, מפני שנראה כאוכל קדשים בחוץ. והלכה כחכמים: