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Mishnayos Bechoros Perek 8 Mishnah 7

בכורות פרק ח׳ משנה ז׳


The five sela coins of the redemption of the firstborn son, with regard to which it is written: “Five shekels of silver, after the shekel of the Sanctuary” (Numbers 18:16), are calculated using a Tyrian maneh. The silver content of the Tyrian coinage is significantly higher than that of provincial coinage, which is worth one-eighth its value. With regard to the thirty shekels paid to the owner of a Canaanite slave who is killed by an ox (see Exodus 21:32), and the fifty shekels paid by a rapist (see Deuteronomy 22:29) and by a seducer (see Exodus 22:16) of a young virgin woman, and the one hundred shekels paid by the defamer of his bride with the claim that she is not a virgin (see Deuteronomy 22:19), all of them, even those cases where the word shekel is not explicitly written, are paid in the shekel of the Sanctuary, whose value is twenty gera (see Numbers 18:16) and that is calculated using a Tyrian maneh. And all monetary obligations are redeemed, i.e., paid, with coins or with items of the equivalent value of money, except for the half-shekels that are donated to the Temple each year, which must be given specifically as coins.

חָמֵשׁ סְלָעִים שֶׁל בֵּן, בְּמָנֶה צוֹרִי. שְׁלשִׁים שֶׁל עֶבֶד, וַחֲמִשִּׁים שֶׁל אוֹנֵס וְשֶׁל מְפַתֶּה, וּמֵאָה שֶׁל מוֹצִיא שֵׁם רָע, כֻּלָּם בְּשֶׁקֶל הַקֹּדֶשׁ, בְּמָנֶה צוֹרִי. וְכֻלָּן נִפְדִּין בְּכֶסֶף, וּבְשָׁוֶה כֶסֶף, חוּץ מִן הַשְּׁקָלִים:


חמש סלעים של בן – the Sela that is mention ed in the Torah in every place (see Numbers 18:16), and sometimes in the Torah it is called כסף /silver , one hundred pieces of silver. For this was during the days of Moses that the weight was three hundred and twenty grains of barley-corn, but during [the time of] the Second Temple, they increased it and raised it to the weight of three hundred and eighty-four [grains] of barley-corn. And similarly, we count today for five Selahs of the child [for redemption]. And it was found that five Selahs has the weight of one thousand nine-hundred and twenty intermediate barley-corns of refined silver.

במנה צורי – that comes from the country of Tyre. But all of the silver coinage of the Torah, as for example, the five Selaim of the son (i.e., the redemption of the first-born son), and the thirty [Selaim] of the slave, and the fifty of the one who wrongs (see Deuteronomy 22:29) and seduces (see Exodus 22:16) , and the one-hundred for the one who slanders, all of them are in the Tyrian coinage which is refined silver. But all of the money which is from the Rabbinic legislation, such as the fines, and the Ketubah of a wife, according to the words of Maimonides, all of them are the money/coinage of the state, for one from eight parts which are in them is silver and seven parts are copper. But my Rabbis taught that the Ketubah/marriage contract of a virgin has the law of silver of the Torah, for it is written (Exodus 22:16): “[If her father refuses to give her to him, he must still weigh out silver in accordance] with the bride-price for virgins,” and the two-hundred clear Zuzim. And the weight of each Zuz is ninety-six barley-corns.

וכולן נפדין – this is what he said, and all that is redeemed is redeemed in silver or its equivalent, except for Shekel dues. And all that is redeemed such as the first-born of a man and that which is dedicated to the Temple, is redeemed whether with silver or with the equivalent of silver, except for that of Shekel dues, for a person who comes to pay the one-half Shekel needs to give it from clear silver engraved coinage and not equivalent to silver. And Second Tithe also is not redeemed other than with silver coinage that has an engraving and not with that which is equivalent to silver, as it is written (Deuteronomy 14:25): “Wrap up the money in your hand ‘and take it with you to the place that the LORD your God has chosen,” – silver money that has upon it a form/shape.

חמש סלעים של בן. הסלע האמור במשנה הוא השקל האמור בתורה בכל מקום. ופעמים נקרא בתורה כסף, חמשים כסף, מאה כסף. והוא היה בימי משה משקל שלש מאות ועשרים גרגירי שעורה, ובבית שני הוסיפו עליו והעלוהו למשקל שלש מאות ושמונים וארבע שעורה. וכן מונים היום לחמש סלעים של בן. ונמצאו חמש סלעים משקל אלף ותשע מאות ועשרים שעורות בינוניות של כסף מזוקק:

במנה צורי. היוצא במדינת צור. וכל כסף של תורה כגון חמשת סלעים של בן שלשים של עבד וחמשים של אונס ומפתה ומאה של מוציא שם רע כולם במנה צורי שהוא כסף מזוקק. וכל כסף שהוא מדבריהם כגון הקנסות וכתובת אשה לדברי רמב"ם כולם כסף מדינה, שאחד משמונה חלקים שבהם כסף ושבעה חלקים נחושת. אבל רבותי הורו שכתובת בתולה יש לה דין כסף של תורה, שכן כתוב כמוהר הבתולות, ומאתן זוזי הן של כסף נקי. ומשקל כל זוז תשעים ושש שעורות:

וכולן נפדין. הכי קאמר, וכל הנפדים נפדין בכסף ובשוה כסף, חוץ מן השקלים. כל הנפדין כגון בכור אדם והקדשות, נפדין בין בכסף בין בשוה כסף, חוץ מן השקלים, שהבא לשקול מחצית השקל צריך שיתן אותו מכסף נקי מטבע מצוייר ולא שוה כסף. ומעשר שני נמי אין נפדה אלא במטבע של כסף שיש עליו צורה ולא בשוה כסף, דכתיב (דברים י״ד) וצרת הכסף בידך, כסף שיש עליו צורה: