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Mishnayos Bechoros Perek 8 Mishnah 6

בכורות פרק ח׳ משנה ו׳


If one woman had previously given birth and one had not previously given birth, and they were married to two men and they gave birth to two males, who then became intermingled, this one whose wife had not previously given birth gives five sela coins to the priest. If the women gave birth to a male and a female the priest has nothing here, as it is possible the female was born to the mother who had not yet given birth. If the firstborn son dies within thirty days of birth, although the father gave five sela to the priest, the priest must return it. If the firstborn son dies after thirty days have passed, even if the father did not give five sela coins to the priest he must give it then. If the firstborn dies on the thirtieth day, that day’s halakhic status is like that of the day that preceded it, as the obligation takes effect only after thirty days have elapsed. Rabbi Akiva says: If the firstborn dies on the thirtieth day it is a case of uncertainty; therefore, if the father already gave the redemption payment to the priest he cannot take it back, but if he did not yet give payment he does not need to give it. If the father of the firstborn dies within thirty days of birth the presumptive status of the son is that he was not redeemed, until the son will bring proof that he was redeemed. If the father dies after thirty days have passed the presumptive status of the son is that he was redeemed, until people will tell him that he was not redeemed. If one had both himself to redeem and his son to redeem, his own redemption takes precedence over that of his son. Rabbi Yehuda says: The redemption of his son takes precedence, as the mitzva to redeem the father is incumbent upon his own father, and the mitzva to redeem his son is incumbent upon him.

אַחַת בִּכְּרָה וְאַחַת שֶׁלֹּא בִכְּרָה שֶׁל שְׁנֵי אֲנָשִׁים, וְיָלְדוּ שְׁנֵי זְכָרִים, זֶה שֶׁלֹּא בִכְּרָה אִשְׁתּוֹ, נוֹתֵן חָמֵשׁ סְלָעִים לַכֹּהֵן. זָכָר וּנְקֵבָה, אֵין כָּאן לַכֹּהֵן כְּלוּם. מֵת הַבֵּן בְּתוֹךְ שְׁלשִׁים יוֹם, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁנָּתַן לַכֹּהֵן, יַחֲזִיר (לוֹ חָמֵשׁ סְלָעִים). לְאַחַר שְׁלשִׁים יוֹם, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא נָתַן, יִתֵּן. מֵת בְּיוֹם שְׁלשִׁים, כְּיוֹם שֶׁלְּפָנָיו. רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא אוֹמֵר, אִם נָתַן, לֹא יִטּוֹל. וְאִם לֹא נָתַן, לֹא יִתֵּן. מֵת הָאָב בְּתוֹךְ שְׁלשִׁים יוֹם, בְּחֶזְקַת שֶׁלֹּא נִפְדָּה, עַד שֶׁיָּבִיא רְאָיָה שֶׁנִּפְדָּה. לְאַחַר שְׁלשִׁים יוֹם, בְּחֶזִקַת שֶׁנִּפְדָּה, עַד (שֶׁיָּבִיא רְאָיָה) שֶׁלֹּא נִפְדָּה. הוּא לִפָּדוֹת וּבְנוֹ לִפָּדוֹת, הוּא קוֹדֵם אֶת בְּנוֹ. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, בְּנוֹ קוֹדְמוֹ, שֶׁמִּצְוָתוֹ עַל אָבִיו, וּמִצְוַת בְּנוֹ עָלָיו:


אחת בכרה ואחת שלא בכרה וכו'. אין כאן לכהן כלום – for one can say that the one giving birth for the first time gave birth to a female child.

מת הבן בתוך שלשים יום – we are speaking of certain firstborns.

יחזיר – for he was not a viable birth/premature, and he is not liable for redemption [of the first-born son] until after thirty days (see also Tractate Arakhin, Chapter 5, Mishnah 4) and Talmud Arakhin 51b).

מת בשיום שלשים כיום שלפניו – and even though he had given him (i.e., the Kohen) [the money], he should return it, for we learn [through an analogy of a Gezerah Shavah] of [comparing the usage of] חודש חודש in the Book of Numbers, it is written here (Numbers 18:16): “Take as their redemption price, from the age of one month up,” and it is written (Numbers 3:40): “[The LORD said to Moses:] Record every first-born male of the Israelite people from the age of one-month up,” [the word ומעלה] implying after the thirtieth day [so also in the other verse].

רבי עקיבא אומר אם נתן לא יטול – for Rabbi Akiba doubts if it is necessary to have the Torah write, ומעלה/and up (i.e., implying after the thirtieth day) regarding valuations , for he doesn’t derive it from the Book of Numbers, for there would be two [similar] verses coming as one and we don’t learn them; therefore, if he gave [the money to the Kohen], he should not take it back. But if he had bot given, he should not give it. For the burden of proof is incumbent upon the claimant (see Tractate Bava Kamma, Chapter 3, Mishnah 11). And the Halakha is according to the Sages.

בחזקת שלא נפדה – for people do not act that they redeem within the thirty [days].

לאחר שלשים בחזקת שנפדה – that a Kohen [who removes something from his fellow and his prerogative is impaired].

הוא קודם לבנו – everyone admits that whenever he has five Selaim that are mortgaged and five [Selaim] that are free-standing, Rabbi Yehuda holds that a loan that is written in the Torah is like that which is written in the document, and his five Selaim, that his father was liable for, the Kohen can go and snatch them from mortgaged property, for his mortgage of the Kohen takes precendence, and that is what is said, that his Mitzvah (i.e., of redeeming his first-born son) is upon his father, that is to say, that from his father, the properties were mortgaged. But these free-standing five [Selaim] are redeemed for his son immediately, for if he gives free-standing [money] because of his redemption, furthermore, his son does not redeem, for perhaps the bought property was mortgaged prior to the birth of his son. But the Rabbis hold that the loan that is written in the Torah is not like that which is written in the document, for if he gives free-standing money for his son, he (i.e., the son) cannot redeem it further, for the Kohen is not able to snatch mortgaged property, therefore, his Mitzvah (i.e., of redeeming his first-born son) is preferable. And the Halakha is according to the Sages.

אחת בכרה ואחת שלא בכרה וכו׳ אין כאן לכהן כלום. דיש לומר המבכרת ילדה הנקבה:

מת הבן בתוך שלשים יום. אבכורות ודאין דעלמא קאי:

יחזיר. דנפל הוה. ולא מיחייב בפדיון עד לאחר שלשים יום:

מת ביום שלשים כיום שלפניו. ואע״פ שנתן לו יחזיר. דגמרינן חודש חודש ממדבר, כתיב הכא (במדבר י״ח:ט״ו-ט״ז) ופדוייו מבן חודש תפדה, וכתיב במדבר (שם ג׳) פקוד כל בכור זכר מבן חודש ומעלה, דמשמע לאחר שלשים:

רבי עקיבא אומר אם נתן לא יטול. מספקא ליה לר״ע מדאיצטריך למכתב ומעלה גבי ערכין, ולא גמרינן ממדבר, הוו להו שני כתובים הבאים כאחד ואין מלמדים, הלכך אם נתן לא יטול. ואם לא נתן לא יתן, דהמוציא מחבירו עליו הראיה. והלכה כחכמים:

בחזקת שלא נפדה. דלא עביד איניש דפריק תוך שלשים:

לאחר שלשים בחזקת שנפדה. דכהן [הוי מוציא מחבירו והורע כחו]:

הוא קודם לבנו. הכל מודים כל היכא דלית ליה אלא חמש סלעים הוא קודם את בנו, דמצוה דידיה עדיף. כי פליגי דאיכא חמש סלעים ממשעבדי וחמש בני חורי, ר׳ יהודה סבר מלוה הכתובה בתורה ככתובה בשטר דמיא, וחמש סלעים דידיה דאחייב בהו אבוה אזיל כהן וטריף ממשעבדי, שהרי שעבודו של כהן קדים. והיינו דקאמר שמצותו על אביו, כלומר שמאביו נשתעבדו הנכסים. ובהני חמש בני חורי פריק לבריה מיד, דאי יהיב בני חורי משום פדיון דידיה, תו לא מפריק בנו, דשמא שעבוד הלקוחות קודם ללידת בנו. ורבנן סברי מלוה הכתובה בתורה לאו ככתובה בשטר דמיא, ואי יהיב בני חורי בשביל בנו תו לא מפריק איהו, דכהן לא מצי טריף מלקוחות, הלכך מצוה דידיה עדיף. והלכה כחכמים: