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Mishnayos Bechoros Perek 7 Mishnah 1

בכורות פרק ז׳ משנה א׳


Concerning these blemishes which were taught with regard to an animal, whether they are permanent or transient, they also disqualify in the case of a person, i.e., they disqualify a priest from performing the Temple service. And in addition to those blemishes, there are other blemishes that apply only to a priest: One whose head is pointed, narrow above and wide below; and one whose head is turnip-like, wide above and narrow below; and one whose head is hammer-like, with his forehead protruding; and one whose head has an indentation; and one wherein the back of his head protrudes. And with regard to those with humped backs, Rabbi Yehuda deems them fit for service and the Rabbis deem them disqualified.

מוּמִין אֵלּוּ, בֵּין קְבוּעִין בֵּין עוֹבְרִין, פּוֹסְלִין בָּאָדָם. יוֹתֵר עֲלֵיהֶן בָּאָדָם, הַכִּילוֹן, וְהַלַּפְתָּן, הַמַּקָּבָן, וְשֶׁרֹאשׁוֹ שָׁקוּעַ, וּשְׁקִיפָס. וּבַעֲלֵי הַחֲטוֹטֶרֶת, רַבִּי יְהוּדָה מַכְשִׁיר, וַחֲכָמִים פּוֹסְלִין:


מומין אלו – that invalidate the firstling, invalidate the Kohen in his Divine service, whether they are permanent or transient all the while that they are upon him.

הכילון (one whose head has the shape of a basket/wedge shaped – see Talmud Bekhorot 43b) – that his head is pointed from above and wide below. And it is similar to the covering of a wine jug which is called an אכלה (or אוכלא/basket or אובלא/perforated trough – vessel made of willow trigs) – therefore it is called a כילון.

והלפתן (turnip-shaped) – that his head is similar to a turnip, that it is wide from above and becomes narrower from below.

מקבן (one whose head is mallet-shaped – see Tractate Bekhorot 43b) – that his head is similar to a mallet, in that the forehead protrudes outward and similarly, his neck from behind him, but his temples are even with his head, and he is similar to a hammer – that is a mallet that goes forth from before him and from behind him.

ושראשו שקוט (whose head is abruptly bent, angular; forehead receding abruptly – see Talmud Bekhorot 43b) – This is our reading. There are those who explain that his head protrudes greatly, and extends outward towards his face. But there are those who explain that it does not protrude at all in front of him, like the matter that it leaps from behind him, that his head does not protrude from behind him at all, and that he is lacking, that it is similar to one that a piece of him is severed from behind him. But the language of שקיפס, is that of a lump of brittle stone that was thrown at it (an idolatrous statue) [see Sanhedrin 64a), that a piece from him was taken. And in the Tosefta it counts also a sunken neck/צואר שקוע, that his head is placed between his shoulders and it is similar to one who has no neck.

ובעלי החטוטרת ר' יהודה מכשיר – that when he has a bone in the hump/hunch, everyone does not dispute that it is a blemish. But they dispute, when it doesn’t have a bone. Rabbi Yehuda holds that it is a mere piece of flesh, but the Rabbis hold, as Scripture States (Leviticus 21:21): “No man among the offspring of Aaron the priest who has a defect [shall be qualified to offer the LORD’s gift],” those who are fit within the seed of Aaron shall serve, but he who is not fit among the seed of Aaron shall not serve. And the Halakha is according to the Sages.

מומין אלו. הפוסלין בבכור, פוסלים בכהן לעבודה, בין קבועים בין עוברים כל זמן שהן עליו:

הכילון. שראשו חד מלמעלה ורחב למטה. ודומה לכסוי של חבית שקרוי אכלה, לפיכך נקרא כילון:

והלפתן. שראשו דומה ללפת, שרחבה מלמעלה והולכת וכלה מלמטה:

מקבן. שדומה ראשו למקבת, שבולט הפדחת לחוץ וכן ערפו מאחוריו, ולצדעיו שוה ראשו, ודומה לפטיש דהיינו מקבת שיוצא מלפניו ומאחריו:

וראשו שקוט. גרסינן. יש מפרשים שראשו בולט הרבה ויוצא לחוץ כלפי פניו. ויש מפרשים שאינו בולט כלל לפניו, כענין שקיפס מאחוריו שאין ראשו בולט מאחוריו כלל, והוא מחוסר, שדומה כמי שנחתך ממנו חתיכה מאחוריו. ולשון שקיפס, שקול פיסא [סנהדרין ס״ד ע״ב], שניטלה ממנו חתיכה. ובתוספתא מונה ג״כ צואר שקוע, שראשו מוטל בין כתפיו ודומה כמי שאין לו צואר:

ובעלי החטוטרת ר׳ יהודה מכשיר. כשיש עצם בחטוטרת כולי עלמא לא פליגי דהוה מום. כי פליגי, בשאין בה עצם. ר׳ יהודה סבר חתיכת בשר בעלמא היא, ורבנן סברי, אמר קרא (ויקרא כ״א) כל איש אשר בו מום מזרע אהרן, השוה בזרעו של אהרן יעבוד, ושאינו שוה בזרעו של אהרן לא יעבוד. והלכה כחכמים: