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Mishnayos Bava Metzia Perek 8 Mishnah 8

בבא מציעא פרק ח׳ משנה ח׳


In the case of one who rents out a house to another for a year and then the year was intercalated, adding an additional month to that year, the fact that it was intercalated is to the benefit of the renter. Since the rental was defined in terms of a year, the additional month is automatically included, and the renter need not pay additional rent for it. If a landlord rented out a house to another for a year, with the price set as a certain sum for each of the months, and then the year was intercalated, the fact that it was intercalated is to the benefit of the landlord. An incident occurred in Tzippori involving one who rented a bathhouse from another where they stated that the rent would be: Twelve gold dinars per year, a gold dinar per month, and then the year was intercalated. And this incident came to court before Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel and before Rabbi Yosei, and they said: The two expressions have contradictory implications, and it is uncertain which expression should be followed. Therefore, the landlord and the renter should divide the intercalary month between them, i.e., the renter should pay half a gold dinar for it.

הַמַּשְׂכִּיר בַּיִת לַחֲבֵרוֹ לְשָׁנָה, נִתְעַבְּרָה הַשָּׁנָה, נִתְעַבְּרָה לַשּׂוֹכֵר. הִשְׂכִּיר לוֹ לֶחֳדָשִׁים, נִתְעַבְּרָה הַשָּׁנָה, נִתְעַבְּרָה לַמַּשְׂכִּיר. מַעֲשֶׂה בְצִפּוֹרִי בְּאֶחָד שֶׁשָּׂכַר מֶרְחָץ מֵחֲבֵרוֹ בִּשְׁנֵים עָשָׂר זָהָב לְשָׁנָה, מִדִּינַר זָהָב לְחֹדֶשׁ, וּבָא מַעֲשֶׂה לִפְנֵי רַבָּן שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן גַּמְלִיאֵל וְלִפְנֵי רַבִּי יוֹסֵי, וְאָמְרוּ, יַחֲלֹקוּ אֶת חֹדֶשׁ הָעִבּוּר:


נתעברה לשוכר – he would not increase the monthly payment, for the intercalation is included in the year.

מעשה בציפורי – In the Gemara (Bava Metzia 102b), it raises an objection. You quote a story which disproves your rule! For the first part of the Mishnah teaches either it all goes to the renter or all goes to the person who rents it out, and it brings a story/case where they should divide it, and it responds that the Mishnah is deficient and it should be read as follows: If he said to him: “I rent it to you] for twelve golden denarii per year, at a golden dinar per month, they must divide/share it between them. And we don’t know if he seized the first language or the latter language, and the story also, etc. But the Halakha is not according the Rabban Shimon ben Gamaliel or like Rabbi Yosi, but one goes after the least of these languages, that the land is in the possession of its owner stands. Therefore, all of it is [belongs] to the person renting out, whether the first language was less whether the latter language was less.

נתעברה לשוכר. לא ירבה לו שכר חודש, שהעיבור בכלל שנה:

מעשה בצפורי. בגמרא פריך, מעשה לסתור, דהא רישא תנא או כולה דשוכר או כולה דמשכיר, ומייתי מעשה דיחלוקו. ומשני, חסורי מחסרא והכי קתני, ואם אמר לו בי״ב זהובים לשנה מדינר זהב לחודש, יחלוקו, דלא ידעינן אי תפוס לשון ראשון או לשון אחרון, ומעשה נמי וכו׳. ואין הלכה כרשב״ג ור׳ יוסי. אלא הלך אחר פחות שבלשונות. דקרקע בחזקת מרה קיימא. לפיכך כולו למשכיר, בין שהיה לשון ראשון פחות בין שהיה לשון אחרון פחות: