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Mishnayos Bava Metzia Perek 4 Mishnah 7

בבא מציעא פרק ד׳ משנה ז׳


The measure of exploitation is four silver ma’a from the twenty-four silver ma’a of a sela. And the smallest monetary claim in court for which a plaintiff can obligate a respondent to take an oath is two silver ma’a. And the smallest monetary admission for which that respondent takes the oath is an admission that one owes at least the value of one peruta. On a related note, the tanna adds that there are five halakhic situations involving perutot: The admission to part of a claim must be that one owes at least the value of one peruta, and a woman is betrothed with the value of one peruta. And one who derives benefit of the value of one peruta from consecrated property has misused consecrated property and is liable to bring an offering, and one who finds an item that has the value of one peruta is obligated to proclaim that he found it. And with regard to one who robs from another an item that has the value of one peruta and took an oath to him that he robbed nothing, when he repents and seeks to return the stolen item he must take it and follow its owner even to Medea. In that case, he may not return the item by means of a messenger; he must give it directly to its owner.

הָאוֹנָאָה אַרְבָּעָה כֶסֶף, וְהַטַּעֲנָה שְׁתֵּי כֶסֶף, וְהַהוֹדָאָה שָׁוֶה פְרוּטָה. חָמֵשׁ פְּרוּטוֹת הֵן. הַהוֹדָאָה שָׁוֶה פְרוּטָה, וְהָאִשָּׁה מִתְקַדֶּשֶׁת בְּשָׁוֶה פְרוּטָה, וְהַנֶּהֱנֶה בְשָׁוֶה פְרוּטָה מִן הַהֶקְדֵּשׁ מָעַל, וְהַמּוֹצֵא שָׁוֶה פְרוּטָה חַיָּב לְהַכְרִיז, וְהַגּוֹזֵל אֶת חֲבֵרוֹ שָׁוֶה פְרוּטָה וְנִשְׁבַּע לוֹ, יוֹלִיכֶנּוּ אַחֲרָיו אֲפִלּוּ לְמָדָי:


האונאה ארבעה כסף – for the purchase of a Selah which is a twenty-four silver Ma’ot. It is found that fraud is one-sixth as we have said. And [the Tanna of the Mishnah] repeated it because he had to teach about pleas/claims which are two silver Ma’ot (see Mishnah Shevuot, Chapter 6, Mishnah 1).

הטענה שתי כסף – for there is no oath imposed by the judges on a claim which is less than two silver [M’ah], for his plea is equivalent to two silver M’ah that I have in your hand, and he would admit from them the equivalent of a Perutah/penny, and denies the rest, or he admits to the entire thing and denies a Perutah.

ההודאה שוה פרוטה – to be a partial admission that he would be liable to take an oath.

המוצא שוה פרוטה – but less than this, he is not obligated to announce, as it is written (Deuteronoomy 22:3): “[…and so too shall you do with anything] that your fellow loses [and you find: you must not remain indifferent],” except for a lost object that is not worth the equivalent of a Perutah.

יוליכנו אחריו – if he admit that he swore falsely, for then, he has no atonement until he actually returns it to his hand, and not to the hand of his agent, as it is written (Numbers 5:7): “…giving to him who he has wronged.”

האונאה ארבעה כסף. למקח סלע שהוא עשרים וארבע מעות כסף. נמצא האונאה שתות כדאמרן. וחזר ושנאה משום דבעי למתני הטענה שתי כסף:

והטענה שתי כסף. שאין שבועת הדיינים על טענה שהיא פחותה משתי כסף, שטענו שוה שתי מעות כסף יש לי בידך, וזה יודה לו מהם שוה פרוטה ויכפור השאר, או יודה לו הכל ויכפור פרוטה:

וההודאה שוה פרוטה. להיות הודאה במקצת ויתחייב שבועה:

המוצא שוה פרוטה. אבל בציר מהכי אינו חייב להכריז, דכתיב (דברים כ״ב:ג׳) אשר תאבד ממנו, פרט לאבדה שאין בה שוה פרוטה:

יוליכנו אחריו. אם הודה שנשבע לשקר, דאז אין לו כפרה עד שיחזירנו לידו ממש ולא ליד שלוחו, דכתיב (במדבר ה׳:ז׳) ונתן לאשר אשם לו: