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Mishnayos Bava Metzia Perek 1 Mishnah 5

בבא מציעא פרק א׳ משנה ה׳


With regard to the found item of one’s minor son or daughter, i.e., an ownerless item that they found; the found item of his Canaanite slave or maidservant; and the found item of his wife, they are his. By contrast, with regard to the found item of one’s adult son or daughter; the found item of his Hebrew slave or maidservant; and the found item of his ex-wife, whom he divorced, even if he has not yet given her payment of the marriage contract that he owes her, they are theirs.

מְצִיאַת בְּנוֹ וּבִתּוֹ הַקְּטַנִּים, מְצִיאַת עַבְדּוֹ וְשִׁפְחָתוֹ הַכְּנַעֲנִים, מְצִיאַת אִשְׁתּוֹ, הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ שֶׁלּוֹ. מְצִיאַת בְּנוֹ וּבִתּוֹ הַגְּדוֹלִים, מְצִיאַת עַבְדּוֹ וְשִׁפְחָתוֹ הָעִבְרִים, מְצִיאַת אִשְׁתּוֹ שֶׁגֵּרְשָׁהּ, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא נָתַן כְּתֻבָּתָהּ, הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ שֶׁלָּהֶן:


הקטנים – all who are supported by/rely upon the father’s table, even if he is an adult, we call him a minor, and anything he finds belongs to his father for the sake of preventing ill-feeling. But a daughter, whether she is a minor or a maiden, her found object belongs to her father, since the Torah makes assignment of all gains/profits of her maidenhood belong to her father (see Numbers 30:17 – בנעוריה בית אביה /”while in her father’s household by reason of her youth”).

עבדו ושפחתו הכנענים – for their bodies are owned by him, as it is written (Leviticus 25:46): “You shall keep them as a possession [for your children after you, for them to inherit as property for all time. Such you may treat as slaves].”

מציאת אשתו – The Rabbis ordained this for the sake of preventing ill-feeling.

הקטנים. כל שסמוך על שלחן אביו אפילו הוא גדול קרי ליה קטן ומציאתו לאביו משום איבה. והבת בין קטנה בין נערה מציאתה לאביה, דהתורה זיכתה כל שבח נעוריה לאביה:

עבדו ושפחתו הכנענים. שהרי גופן קנוי לו. כדכתיב (ויקרא כה מו) והתנחלתם אותם:

מציאת אשתו. רבנן תקינו ליה משום איבה: