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Mishnayos Bava Metzia Perek 1 Mishnah 4

בבא מציעא פרק א׳ משנה ד׳


If one saw a found item and fell upon it, intending to thereby acquire it, but did not employ one of the formal modes of acquisition, and then another came and seized it, the one who seized it acquired it because he employed one of the formal modes of acquisition. If one saw people running after a found ownerless animal, e.g., after a deer crippled by a broken leg, or after young pigeons that have not yet learned to fly, which can be caught easily, and he said: My field has effected acquisition of this animal for me, it has effected acquisition of it for him. If the deer were running in its usual manner, or the young pigeons were flying, and he said: My field has effected acquisition of this animal for me, he has said nothing, as one’s courtyard cannot effect acquisition of an item that does not remain there on its own.

רָאָה אֶת הַמְּצִיאָה וְנָפַל עָלֶיהָ, וּבָא אַחֵר וְהֶחֱזִיק בָּהּ, זֶה שֶׁהֶחֱזִיק בָּהּ זָכָה בָהּ. רָאָה אוֹתָן רָצִין אַחַר מְצִיאָה, אַחַר צְבִי שָׁבוּר, אַחַר גּוֹזָלוֹת שֶׁלֹּא פָרְחוּ, וְאָמַר זָכְתָה לִי שָׂדִי, זָכְתָה לוֹ. הָיָה צְבִי רָץ כְּדַרְכּוֹ, אוֹ שֶׁהָיוּ גוֹזָלוֹת מַפְרִיחִין, וְאָמַר זָכְתָה לִי שָׂדִי, לֹא אָמַר כְּלוּם:


זה שהחזיק בה זכה בה – and especially when the lost object was in the public domain, since the four cubits [surrounding] a person do not acquire for him in the public domain, the person who takes hold of it acquires title to it. But in an alley/recess (adjoining an open place to which merchants retire to transact business; alternatively: market stand under a colonnade), which is the path of an individual, or on the sides of the public domain where many are not crowding there, the four cubits of a person take possession for any found object and any ownerless object that is near him is considered like four cubits, and another person may not take seize it. And the Rabbis decreed this so people would not come to quarrel.

אחר צבי שבור – which is incapable of running and is well-guarded in the field (i.e., fenced in), if others will not take it, it is like a found object.

זכתה לו – and he stands at the side of his field, and as such is able to run after them and reaches them before they leave from his field.

זה שהחזיק בה זכה בה. ודוקא שהיתה המציאה ברשות הרבים, שאין ארבע אמות של אדם קונות לו ברה״ר לפיכך המחזיק בה זכה. אבל בסימטא שהיא שביל של יחיד, או בצדי רשות הרבים שאין רבים דוחקים שם, ארבע אמות של אדם קונות לו כל מציאה וכל הפקר שסמוך לו בארבע אמות, ואין אחר רשאי לתפסו. ותקינו ליה רבנן כי היכי דלא ליתו לאינצויי:

אחר צבי שבור. שאינו יכול לרוץ ומשתמר בתוך השדה אם לא יטלוהו אחרים, והוי כמציאה:

זכתה לו. שדהו. והוא שעומד בצד שדהו, וכגון שיכול לרוץ אחריהן ומגיען קודם שיצאו משדהו: