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Mishnayos Bava Kamma Perek 6 Mishnah 5

בבא קמא פרק ו׳ משנה ה׳


With regard to one who kindles a stack of wheat or barley and there were vessels concealed inside the stack and they caught fire and burned together with the stack, Rabbi Yehuda says: The one who kindled the fire also pays compensation for what was inside the stack, but the Rabbis say: He pays compensation only for the stack of wheat or barley, as the case may be, and he is not responsible for that which was concealed within it. If there was a goat tied to the stack of grain, and there was a Canaanite slave nearby who was not tied to it, and both the goat and the slave were burned together with the stack and killed, the one who kindled the fire is liable to pay compensation for both. Conversely, if the slave was tied to the stack and there was a goat nearby that was not tied to it, and they were both burned together with it, the one who kindled the fire is exempt from payment for damage because he is liable to receive capital punishment for murder, and he is punished only for the greater transgression. And the Rabbis, who disagree with Rabbi Yehuda and exempt one from payment for vessels concealed inside the stack in the field, concede to Rabbi Yehuda that if one sets fire to a building, he pays compensation for everything that was burned inside it, since it is the normal way of people to place items in houses.

הַמַּדְלִיק אֶת הַגָּדִישׁ, וְהָיוּ בּוֹ כֵלִים וְדָלָקוּ. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, יְשַׁלֵּם מַה שֶּׁבְּתוֹכוֹ. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, אֵינוֹ מְשַׁלֵּם אֶלָּא גָּדִישׁ שֶׁל חִטִּין אוֹ שֶׁל שְׂעֹרִים. הָיָה גְדִי כָפוּת לוֹ וְעֶבֶד סָמוּךְ לוֹ וְנִשְׂרַף עִמּוֹ, חַיָּב. עֶבֶד כָּפוּת לוֹ וּגְדִי סָמוּךְ לוֹ וְנִשְׂרַף עִמּוֹ, פָּטוּר. וּמוֹדִים חֲכָמִים לְרַבִּי יְהוּדָה בְּמַדְלִיק אֶת הַבִּירָה, שֶׁהוּא מְשַׁלֵּם כָּל מַה שֶּׁבְּתוֹכוֹ, שֶׁכֵּן דֶּרֶךְ בְּנֵי אָדָם לְהַנִּיחַ בַּבָּתִּים:


המדליק את הגדיש – he kindled it within his own [property] and it went and consumed that of his fellow.

ר' יהודה אומר ישלם כל מה שבתוכו – that Rabbi Yehuda obligates on hidden damage in the fire, for he does not have (i.e., hold) the expounded teaching on "או הקמה"/or the standing grain (see Exodus 22:5). Just as the standing grain is uncovered, even all that is uncovered.

וחכ"א אינו משלם אלא גדיש וכו' - they have (i.e., “hold by” this expounded teaching of "או הקמה" and exempt on all damages that are hidden in the fire, but they estimate the place of the utensils as if it is a heap of grain. And he pays the heap of grain like the measure of the body of the utensils and when we stated the end [of our Mishnah]: “And the Sages agree with Rabbi Yehuda” – when he sets fire to a large building, that he pays for all that is inside it. And it is proven in the Gemara (Tractate Bava Kamma 61b) that Rabbi Yehuda and the Rabbis disagreed also with one who kindles a fire in [the property] of his fellow, as Rabbi Yehuda holds that if he lights a fire in that of his fellow, he pays for everything that is within it, and even for a money-bag (or a purse hanging from the neck). But the Rabbis hold that utensils that one ordinarily hides in a heap of sheaves such as threshing sledges (i.e., an implement with grooves and indentations) and the utensils of cattle he pays for; utensils that one customarily does not hid in a heap of sheaves, he does not pay. And the Halakha is according to the Sages.

היה גדי כפות לו חייב – for living creatures are also included in "או הקמה"/or standing grain. And because of the case that he who has committed two offenses simultaneously, must be held answerable for the severer only, he cannot be exempted. That he is not liable for death on the slave, for since he was not tied up, he could have fled and would exempt about him from the death penalty and from payments. But if he was a slave tied up, he would be exempt even on the kid and on the heap of sheaves, but he would liable for the death penalty on the slave – for he who has committed two offenses simultaneously, must be held answerable for the severer only. But concerning the kid, it makes ono difference whether it was tied up or not tied up, for since it (i.e. the Mishnah) took the language of the slave, it took the language of the kid as well.

במדליק את הבירה – when he kindles within that of his fellow and it is as if he destroys with his hands, and even so, the reason because it is the manner of people to leave their utensils in their houses, but a heap of sheaves, where it is not the manner of people to leave it other than like a threshing sledge (i.e., an implement with grooves or indentations) or the instruments for cattle. Even though I will kindle with that of my fellow, he doesn’t pay, according to the Sages other than things that it is customary to hide in a heap of sheaves.

המדליק את הגדיש. שהדליק בתוך שלו והלכה ואכלה בתוך של חברו:

רבי יהודה אומר ישלם כל מה שבתוכו. דר׳ יהודה מחייב על נזקי טמון באש. דלית ליה דרשא דאו הקמה מה קמה גלויה אף כל גלוי:

וחכ״א אינו משלם אלא גדיש וכו׳ דאית להו דרשא דאו הקמה, ופטרי על נזקי טמון באש. אלא שמשערין מקום הכלים כאילו הוא גדיש, ומשלם גדיש כשעור גופן של כלים. ומדקאמרי סיפא ומודים חכמים לר׳ יהודה במדליק את הבירה שהוא משלם כל מה שבתוכה, מוכח בגמרא שנחלקו רבי יהודה וחכמים גם במדליק בתוך של חברו, שרבי יהודה סבר כשהדליק בשל חברו משלם כל מה שבתוכו ואפילו ארנקי. ורבנן סברי כלים שדרכן להטמין בגדיש כגון מוריגין וכלי בקר הוא דמשלם, כלים שאין דרכן להטמין בגדיש לא משלם. והלכה כחכמים:

היה גדי כפות לו חייב. דבעלי חיים נמי אתרבו מאו הקמה. ומשום דקם ליה בדרבה מיניה ליכא למפטריה. דאינו חייב מיתה על העבד, הואיל ואינו כפות היה לו לברוח, ופטור עליו ממיתה ומן התשלומין. אבל אם היה עבד כפות לו, פטור אפילו על הגדי ועל הגדיש, דחייב מיתה על העבד וקם ליה בדרבה מיניה. ובגדי לא שני לן בין כפות לאינו כפות. ואיידי דנקט בעבד נקט בגדי:

במדליק את הבירה. דמדליק בתוך של חבירו הוא, והוי כמאבד בידים. ואפ"ה טעמא משום דדרך בני אדם להניח כלים בבתים. אבל בגדיש דאין דרך בני אדם להניח אלא כגון מוריגין וכלי בקר, אע״ג דאדליק לתוך של חבירו, אינו משלם אליבא דחכמים אלא דברים שדרכן להטמין בגדיש: