Let's finish Mishnayos in memory of those who were murdered in Israel.
Pledge Mishnayos
Mishnah.org Logo

Mishnayos Bava Kamma Perek 6 Mishnah 4

בבא קמא פרק ו׳ משנה ד׳


One who sends a fire, i.e., places a burning object, in the hand of a deaf-mute, an imbecile, or a minor is exempt for any damage later caused by the fire according to human laws but liable according to the laws of Heaven. If he sent it in the hand of a halakhically competent person, the halakhically competent person is liable, not the one who sent him. If one person brought the fire, and one other person subsequently brought the wood, causing the fire to spread, the one who brought the wood is liable for any damage caused. Conversely, if one person first brought the wood, and subsequently one other person brought the fire, the one who brought the fire is liable, since it was he who actually kindled the wood. If another came and fanned the flame, and as a result the fire spread and caused damage, the one who fanned it is liable, since he is the proximate cause of the damage. If the wind fanned the flames, all the people involved are exempt, since none of them actually caused the damage. If one sends forth a fire, i.e., allows it to escape, and it consumes wood, or stones, or earth, he is liable, as it is stated: “If a fire breaks out, and catches in thorns, so that a stack of grain, or standing grain, or the field, is consumed, the one who kindled the fire shall pay compensation” (Exodus 22:5), which teaches that he is liable also for destroying the field itself. If one kindled a fire that crossed a fence that is four cubits high, or if the fire crossed the public thoroughfare, or if the fire crossed a river, and in each case it caused damage on the other side, he is exempt from liability. In a case of one who kindles a fire on his own premises, up to what distance may the fire travel within his property for him to still bear liability for damage caused? Rabbi Elazar ben Azaria says: The court views his location where he kindled the fire as if it were in the center of a beit kor. Therefore, if the fire spreads and causes damage farther away than half a beit kor, the one who kindled the fire is exempt, since he could not anticipate that the fire would spread so far. Rabbi Eliezer says: One is liable up to a distance of sixteen cubits, like the width of a public thoroughfare. Rabbi Akiva says: One is liable up to a distance of fifty cubits. Rabbi Shimon says: The verse states: “The one who kindled the fire shall pay [shallem yeshallem] compensation” (Exodus 22:5), to teach that everything is according to the fire.

הַשּׁוֹלֵחַ אֶת הַבְּעֵרָה בְּיַד חֵרֵשׁ, שׁוֹטֶה וְקָטָן, פָּטוּר בְּדִינֵי אָדָם וְחַיָּב בְּדִינֵי שָׁמָיִם. שָׁלַח בְּיַד פִּקֵּחַ, הַפִּקֵּחַ חַיָּב. אֶחָד הֵבִיא אֶת הָאוּר, וְאֶחָד הֵבִיא אֶת הָעֵצִים, הַמֵּבִיא אֶת הָעֵצִים חַיָּב. אֶחָד הֵבִיא אֶת הָעֵצִים, וְאֶחָד הֵבִיא אֶת הָאוּר, הַמֵּבִיא אֶת הָאוּר חַיָּב. בָּא אַחֵר וְלִבָּה, הַמְּלַבֶּה חַיָּב. לִבְּתָה הָרוּחַ, כֻּלָּן פְּטוּרִין. הַשּׁוֹלֵחַ אֶת הַבְּעֵרָה וְאָכְלָה עֵצִים, אוֹ אֲבָנִים, אוֹ עָפָר, חַיָּב, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות כב) כִּי תֵצֵא אֵשׁ וּמָצְאָה קוֹצִים וְנֶאֱכַל גָּדִישׁ אוֹ הַקָּמָה אוֹ הַשָּׂדֶה, שַׁלֵּם יְשַׁלֵּם הַמַּבְעִיר אֶת הַבְּעֵרָה. עָבְרָה גָּדֵר שֶׁהוּא גָּבוֹהַּ אַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת, אוֹ דֶּרֶךְ הָרַבִּים, אוֹ נָהָר, פָּטוּר. הַמַּדְלִיק בְּתוֹךְ שֶׁלּוֹ, עַד כַּמָּה תַעֲבֹר הַדְּלֵקָה. רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר בֶּן עֲזַרְיָה אוֹמֵר, רוֹאִין אוֹתוֹ כְּאִלוּ הוּא בְאֶמְצַע בֵּית כּוֹר. רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר אוֹמֵר, שֵׁשׁ עֶשְׂרֵה אַמּוֹת, כְּדֶרֶךְ רְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים. רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא אוֹמֵר, חֲמִשִּׁים אַמָּה. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמֵר, שַׁלֵּם יְשַׁלֵּם הַמַּבְעִיר אֶת הַבְּעֵרָה (שמות כב), הַכֹּל לְפִי הַדְּלֵקָה:


בא אחר וליבה – he blew on the fire and it rose into a large flame like (Exodus 3:2): “[An angel of the LORD appeared to him] in a blazing fire” and there are those who have the reading "נבה" – from the decree (Isaiah 57:19): “heartening comforting words: [ it shall be well, Well with the far and the near – said the LORD-and I will heal them].” When a person speaks and moves his lips, and wind escapes.

או דרך הרבים – sixteen cubits like the banners [of the tribes] in the wilderness.

ר"ש אומר הכל לפי הדליקה – according to the height of the fire and the size of the barley when the large fire jumps from afar. And the Halakha is according to Rabbi Shimon.

ובא אחר וליבה. נפח באש והעלה שלהבת, כמו בלבת אש. (שמות ג׳) ואית ספרים דגרסי נבה, מגזרת ניב שפתים (ישעיה נ״ז). כשאדם מדבר מנענע בשפתיו ורוח יוצא:

או עפר. שליחכה נירו ונתקלקל:

או דרך הרבים. שש עשרה אמה, כדגלי המדבר:

ר״ש אומר הכל לפי הדליקה. לפי גובה הדליקה וגודל שיעורה. שכשהאש גדולה קופצת למרחוק. והלכה כר״ש: