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Mishnayos Bava Basra Perek 8 Mishnah 7

בבא בתרא פרק ח׳ משנה ז׳


A healthy person who writes a document granting his property to his sons in his lifetime, but wishes to continue to derive benefit from it until his death, must write: I give the property from today and after my death. This is the statement of Rabbi Yehuda. Rabbi Yosei says: He need not write: From today and after my death; it is sufficient for him to write that the transfer will take effect after he dies. If one writes a document granting his property to his son from today and after his death, the father cannot sell the property because it is written as granted to the son, and the son cannot sell it because it is still in the possession of the father with regard to using the property and consuming its produce. If the father sold the property, it is sold to the purchaser inasmuch as he may use it and consume its produce until the father dies, at which point it belongs to the son. If the son sold it during his father’s lifetime, the purchaser has no right to use it until the father dies. In continuation of the case discussed in the previous mishna of a father who wrote a document granting his property to his son but reserved the rights to the produce during his lifetime, the mishna states that the father may detach produce from the land and feed the produce to whomever he wishes, and what he left detached at the time of his death belongs to all the father’s heirs, not only to this son. If a person died and left adult and minor sons, the adults are not provided for by using funds of the minors, and the minors are not sustained, i.e., they do not receive food, by using funds of the adults. Rather, they receive a share of the inheritance equally, and each son sees to his needs from his own share. If the adults married, the minors marry, as the Gemara will explain. But if the minors say: We are marrying in the same manner that you adults married during our father’s lifetime, the court does not listen to them. Rather, whatever their father gave the adults in his lifetime he gave them, and the minors do not have the right to receive more than their share of the inheritance.

הַכּוֹתֵב נְכָסָיו לְבָנָיו, צָרִיךְ שֶׁיִּכְתֹּב מֵהַיּוֹם וּלְאַחַר מִיתָה, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי יְהוּדָה. רַבִּי יוֹסֵי אוֹמֵר, אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ. הַכּוֹתֵב נְכָסָיו לִבְנוֹ לְאַחַר מוֹתוֹ, הָאָב אֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לִמְכֹּר, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהֵן כְּתוּבִין לַבֵּן, וְהַבֵּן אֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לִמְכֹּר, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהֵן בִּרְשׁוּת הָאָב. מָכַר הָאָב, מְכוּרִין עַד שֶׁיָּמוּת. מָכַר הַבֵּן, אֵין לַלּוֹקֵחַ בָּהֶן כְּלוּם עַד שֶׁיָּמוּת הָאָב. הָאָב תּוֹלֵשׁ וּמַאֲכִיל לְכָל מִי שֶׁיִּרְצֶה. וּמַה שֶּׁהִנִּיחַ תָּלוּשׁ, הֲרֵי הוּא שֶׁל יוֹרְשִׁין. הִנִּיחַ בָּנִים גְּדוֹלִים וּקְטַנִּים, אֵין הַגְּדוֹלִים מִתְפַּרְנְסִים עַל הַקְּטַנִּים וְלֹא הַקְּטַנִּים נִזּוֹנִין עַל הַגְּדוֹלִים, אֶלָּא חוֹלְקִין בְּשָׁוֶה. נָשְׂאוּ הַגְּדוֹלִים, יִשְׂאוּ הַקְּטַנִּים. וְאִם אָמְרוּ קְטַנִּים הֲרֵי אָנוּ נוֹשְׂאִים כְּדֶרֶךְ שֶׁנְּשָׂאתֶם אַתֶּם, אֵין שׁוֹמְעִין לָהֶם, אֶלָּא מַה שֶּׁנָּתַן לָהֶם אֲבִיהֶם נָתָן:


צריך שיכתוב מהיום ולאחר מיתה – that implies the body of the land will be acquired by you from today, but you will not eat of the fruits until after death, but if he did not write, “from today,” he did not give him anything for there is no gift after death.

אינו צריך – [it is not necessary] to write “from today, for since he wrote in the document: “on such-and-such day of the week, so-and-so told us, “be for me witnesses,” the date [and time] of the document proves that from that day, the gift began. But if he did not say this, the time that is written in the document – for what purposes was it written? And the Halakha is according to Rabbi Yosi.

לאחר מותו – from today and after death.

האב אינו יכול למכור – without the son, for the body [of the estate] was acquired by the son.

מכר האב – [the father sold] in an undefined manner the fruits are sold to the purchaser, until the father dies.

מכר הבן – during the lifetime of the father, [the son sold it], the purchaser does not have the fruits until the father dies.

האב – who wrote that his property is to go to his son from today and after death, may pluck up and feed the fruit to whomever he desires during his lifetime, but what he left that is attached [is deposed] at the time of death. Even though that it stands to be plucked up, they belong to the son who receives the gift. But he who writes that all of his property is to go to someone else, even what he had left attached to the ground at the time of his death, it belongs to the inheritors, for the intention of a person is closer to his son than to anyone else.

מתפרנסין – garments and clothing because the support of the older children is greater than the support of the younger children.

נזונים – food and drink, because the food of the younger children is greater than that of the older children, who eat many times and scatter. Therefore, the younger children prevent the older children from supporting themselves from that which belongs to the estate of the house, and the older children prevent the younger children from being fed, but rather, each one is supported and fed from his portion.

נשאו גדולים – they made all the needs of the wedding from the estate of the house after the death of their father, the younger children will also get married with [the support of] the estate of the house.

ואם אמרו הקטנים – behold, we will get married in the manner that you married during the lifetime of our father, we don’t listen to them, but rather, what their father gave them during his lifetime, he gave [them.

צריך שיכתוב מהיום ולאחר מיתה. דמשמע גוף הקרקע יהא קנוי לך מהיום ולא תאכל הפירות עד לאחר מיתה. ואם לא כתב מהיום, לא נתן לו כלום, דאין מתנה לאחר מיתה:

אינו צריך. לכתוב מהיום. דכיון שכתב בשטר בכך וכך בשבת אמר לנו פלוני הוו עלי עדים, זמנו של שטר מוכיח עליו שמאותו היום התחילה המתנה, דאי לא תימא הכי, זמן שנכתב בשטר למה נכתב. והלכה כרבי יוסי:

לאחר מותו. מהיום ולאחר מיתה:

האב אינו יכול למכור. בלא הבן. שהגוף קנוי לבן:

והבן אינו יכול למכור. בלא האב. שהפירות קנויין לאב:

מכר האב. סתמא מכורים הפירות ללוקח, עד שימות האב:

מכר הבן. בחיי האב אין ללוקח פירות עד שימות האב:

האב. שכתב נכסיו לבנו מהיום ולאחר מיתה:

תולש ומאכיל הפירות למי שירצה בחייו. אבל מה שהניח במחובר בשעת מיתה אע״פ שעומד ליתלש הרי הן של בנו מקבל המתנה. אבל הכותב נכסיו לאחר, אפילו מה שהניח במחובר לקרקע בשעת מיתתו הרי הוא של יורשים, שדעתו של אדם קרובה אצל בנו יותר מאחר:

מתפרנסין. לבוש וכסות. לפי שפרנסת הגדולים מרובה מפרנסת הקטנים:

ניזונים. אכילה ושתיה. לפי שמזונות הקטנים מרובים משל גדולים, שאוכלים פעמים רבות ומפזרים, לפיכך הקטנים מעכבים על הגדולים מלהתפרנס מתפוסת הבית, והגדולים מעכבין על הקטנים מליזון, אלא יתפרנס ויזון כל אחד מחלקו:

נשאו גדולים. ועשו צרכי חופה מתפוסת הבית לאחר מיתת אביהם:

ישאו גם הקטנים. מתפוסת הבית:

ואם אמרו הקטנים. לאחר מיתת אביהם, הרי אנו נושאים כדרך שנשאתם אתם בחיי אבינו:

אין שומעין להם. אלא מה שנתן להם אביהם בחייו, נתן: