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Mishnayos Zevachim Perek 5 Mishnah 5

זבחים פרק ה׳ משנה ה׳


These are the halakhot of communal peace offerings and guilt offerings. These are guilt offerings: The guilt offering for robbery, brought by one from whom another demanded payment of a debt and he denied it and took a false oath (see Leviticus 5:20–26); the guilt offering for unwitting misuse of consecrated property (see Leviticus 5:14–16); the guilt offering of an espoused maidservant, brought by one who engaged in sexual intercourse with a Canaanite maidservant betrothed to a Hebrew slave (see Leviticus 19:20–22); the guilt offering of a nazirite who became impure via contact with a corpse (see Numbers 6:12); the guilt offering of a leper, brought for his purification (see Leviticus 14:12); and the provisional guilt offering, brought by one who is uncertain as to whether he committed a sin that requires a sin offering (see Leviticus 5:17–18). Concerning all of these, their slaughter is in the north of the Temple courtyard and collection of their blood in a service vessel is in the north, and their blood requires two placements that are four. And the meat portions of the offering are eaten within the curtains, i.e., in the Temple courtyard, by male priests. And they are eaten prepared in any manner of food preparation, on the day the offering was sacrificed and during the night that follows, until midnight.

זִבְחֵי שַׁלְמֵי צִבּוּר וַאֲשָׁמוֹת. אֵלּוּ הֵן אֲשָׁמוֹת, אֲשַׁם גְּזֵלוֹת, אֲשַׁם מְעִילוֹת, אֲשַׁם שִׁפְחָה חֲרוּפָה, אֲשַׁם נָזִיר, אֲשַׁם מְצֹרָע, אָשָׁם תָּלוּי, שְׁחִיטָתָן בַּצָּפוֹן, וְקִבּוּל דָּמָן בִּכְלִי שָׁרֵת בַּצָּפוֹן, וְדָמָן טָעוּן שְׁתֵּי מַתָּנוֹת שֶׁהֵן אַרְבַּע, וְנֶאֱכָלִין לִפְנִים מִן הַקְּלָעִים לְזִכְרֵי כְהֻנָּה בְּכָל מַאֲכָל לְיוֹם וָלַיְלָה עַד חֲצוֹת:


זבחי שלמי צבור – the sheep for Atzeret/Shavuot.

אשם גזילות – that are stated for the oath of deposit.

שאם מעילות – who benefits from that which is dedicated to Temple property.

אשם שפחה חרופה – he who comes into [sexual elations] with a slave woman who is half a slave and half a free woman who is designated to a Hebrew slave who is permitted to a maidservant and someone who is a free woman.

אשם נזיר – who became defiled [by contact] with the dead, as it is written concerning hm (Numbers 6:12): “And rededicate to the LORD his erm as nazirite.”

אשם תלןי – doubtfully inadvertently sinned in a manner where one is liable for extirpation for sinning willfully, and it is doubtfulif he didn’t sin inadvertently. But it is written in Leviticus (5:17-18) regarding the guilt-offering for misuse of sacred property.

אשם ודאי – we do not read this [in the Mishnah], for all of these are definite guilt-offerings, except for the uncertain guilt-offering.

שתי מתנות שהן ארבע – that regarding the guilt offering it is also written (Leviticus 7:2) “The reparation offering shall be slaughtered at the spot where the burnt offering is slaughtered, and the blood shall be dashed on all sides of the altar.” It is written זריקה/dashing/casting and סביב/on all sides.

ונאכלין לפנים מן הקלעים – as it is written with regard to the reparation/guilt offering (Numbers 18:10): “You shall partake of them as most sacred donations.” But Scripture juxtaposed the peace-offerings/sacrifices of well-being of the community to the sin offering, as it is written (Leviticus 23:19): “You shall also offer one he-goat as a purification offering and two yearling lambs as a sacrifice of well-being,” to inform you that their law is like that of a sin-offering, which are not consumed other than inside fom the curtain and only by males of the priesthood. But they do not require four gifts like a sin offering, for there isn’t among all of the sacrifices that which requires four gifts other than only the sin-offering.

זבחי שלמי צבור. כבשי עצרת:

אשם גזילות. האמור בשבועת הפקדון:

אשם מעילות. הנהנה מן ההקדש:

אשם שפחה חרופה. הבא על שפחה שחציה שפחה וחציה בת חורין המיועדת לעבד עברי שמותר בשפחה ובבת חורין:

אשם נזיר. שנטמא במת. דכתיב ביה (במדבר ו׳:י״ב) והזיר לה׳ את ימי נזרו [וגו׳]:

אשם תלוי. ספק שגג בדבר שחייבין על זדונו כרת, ספק לא שגג. והוא כתיב בויקרא אצל אשם מעילות:

אשם ודאי. לא גרסינן. שכל אלו אשם ודאי הן, חוץ מאשם תלוי:

שתי מתנות שהן ארבע. דבאשם נמי כתיב זריקה וכתיב סביב:

ונאכלין לפנים מן הקלעים. דכתיב באשם (במדבר י״ח:י׳) בקודש הקדשים תאכלנו. וזבחי שלמי צבור סמך אותן הכתוב לחטאת דכתיב (ויקרא כ״ג:י״ט) ועשיתם שעיר עזים אחד לחטאת ושני כבשים בני שנה לזבח שלמים, לומר לך שדינן כחטאת שאין נאכלין אלא לפנים מן הקלעים ולזכרי כהונה. אבל אין טעונים ארבע מתנות כחטאת, שאין לך בכל הקרבנות מי שטעון ארבע מתנות אלא חטאת בלבד: