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Mishnayos Zevachim Perek 3 Mishnah 1

זבחים פרק ג׳ משנה א׳


With regard to all those who are unfit for Temple service who slaughtered an offering, their slaughter is valid, as the slaughter of an offering is valid ab initio when performed even by non-priests, by women, by Canaanite slaves, and by ritually impure individuals. And this is the halakha even with regard to offerings of the most sacred order, provided that the ritually impure will not touch the flesh of the slaughtered animal, thereby rendering it impure. Therefore, these unfit individuals can disqualify the offering with prohibited intent, e.g., if one of them intended to partake of the offering beyond its designated time or outside its designated area. And with regard to all of them, in a case where they collected the blood with the intent to offer it beyond its designated time or outside its designated area, if there is blood of the soul that remains in the animal, the priest fit for Temple service should again collect the blood and sprinkle it on the altar.

כָּל הַפְּסוּלִין שֶׁשָּׁחֲטוּ, שְׁחִיטָתָן כְּשֵׁרָה. שֶׁהַשְּׁחִיטָה כְשֵׁרָה בְּזָרִים, בְּנָשִׁים, וּבַעֲבָדִים, וּבִטְמֵאִים, אֲפִלּוּ בְקָדְשֵׁי קָדָשִׁים, וּבִלְבַד שֶׁלֹּא יִהְיוּ טְמֵאִים נוֹגְעִים בַּבָּשָׂר. לְפִיכָךְ הֵם פּוֹסְלִים בְּמַחֲשָׁבָה. וְכֻלָּן שֶׁקִּבְּלוּ אֶת הַדָּם חוּץ לִזְמַנּוֹ וְחוּץ לִמְקוֹמוֹ, אִם יֵשׁ דַּם הַנֶּפֶשׁ, יַחֲזֹר הַכָּשֵׁר וִיקַבֵּל:


כל הפסולין ששחטו שחיטתן כשרה – and the same law applies (regarding the list provided in Tractate Zevakhim, Chapter 2, Mishnah 1 of those who are ineligible to partake of the Temple Service) even ab initio, they may perform the slaughtering [of the sacrifice] as it is written (Leviticus 1:5): “The bull shall be slaughtered before the LORD; and Aaron’s sons, the priests shall offer the blood, [dashing the blood against all sides of the altar which is at the entrance of the Tent of Meeting],” from receiving the blood onward is the command of the priesthood, teaching regarding that the slaughtering [of the sacrifice] is appropriate for a non-Kohen and those who are ineligible, and it (i.e., the Mishnah) does not teach that they slaughtered it implying that de-facto it is fine but not ab-initio, but only because they are ritually impure, for a person who is ritually impure ab-initio cannot slaughter, as a decree lest he come in contact with the flesh/meat. But an impure person who slaughtered Holy Things and fit individuals are not found [together], other than with a long knife, as for example, when he stands outside the Temple courtyard and slaughters the animal that is within the Temple courtyard, for that is slaughtering of Holy Things (i.e., animals) in the Temple courtyard, but an impure person cannot enter into the Temple courtyard. But if he was defiled by an unclean reptile, that he doesn’t defile the knife, for he is not a primary source of ritual impurity. Or someone who is defied by contact with the dead who defiles the knife to become the primary source of ritual impurity in a similar manner, and the knife defiles the meat.

לפיכך הן פוסלים – the sacrifice through [improper] intention. Since they are appropriate for this [particular] Divine Service, their intention is [an inappropriate] intention and it invalidates.

וכולן – those that are invalidated.

שקבלו את הדם – on the condition to consume and/or to offer it up outside its appropriate time framework or outside its appropriate location.

אם יש דם הנפש – still in the animal, an appropriate/fit person should go back to the Divine Service and receive [the blood] and toss/sprinkle it, and the offering will be fit/kosher. For the intention of these do not invalidate them in the reception, because they are not fit for it. For the [inappropriate] intention does not invalidate other than someone who is appropriate/fit for Divine Service, and for the appropriate thing, and in the appropriate place to perform Divine Service, as it is written (Leviticus 7:18): “it shall not count for him who offered it,” for the verse speaks about someone who is fit for offering it.

כל הפסולין ששחטו שחיטתן כשרה. והוא הדין דאפילו לכתחילה שוחטין. דכתיב (ויקרא א׳:ה׳) ושחט את בן הבקר והקריבו בני אהרן הכהנים את הדם, מקבלה ואילך מצות כהונה, למד על השחיטה שכשרה בזרים ובפסולים. ולא קתני ששחטו דמשמע דיעבד אין לכתחילה לא, אלא,. משום טמאים בלבד, דטמא לכתחילה לא ישחוט, גזירה שמא יגע בבשר. וטמא ששחט בקדשים וכשרים לא משכחת לה, אלא בסכינא אריכא, וכגון שהוא עומד חוץ לעזרה ושוחט הבהמה שבתוך העזרה, דהא שחיטת קדשים בעזרה הויא, ואין טמא נכנס לעזרה. ובנטמא בשרץ, שאינו מטמא את הסכין, דלאו אב הטומאה הוא. או בטמא מת וכגון שבדק קרומית של קנה ושחט בה, אבל בסכין לא, שטמא מת מטמא את הסכין להיות אב הטומאה כיוצא בו, והסכין מטמא את הבשר:

לפיכך הן פוסלים. את הקרבן במחשבה. הואיל וראויין לעבודה זו, מחשבתן מחשבה ופוסלת:

וכולן. הפסולים:

שקבלו את הדם על מנת לאכול ולהקטיר חוץ לזמנו או חוץ למקומו:

אם יש דם הנפש עוד בבהמה, יחזור הכשר לעבודה ויקבל ויזרוק, והזבח כשר. שאין מחשבתן של אלו פוסלתן בקבלה, לפי שאינן ראוין לה, ואין המחשבה פוסלת אלא במי שראוי לעבודה, ובדבר הראוי, ובמקום הראוי לעבוד, דכתיב (ויקרא ז) המקריב אותו לא יחשב, בראוי להקרבה הכתוב מדבר: