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Mishnayos Zevachim Perek 2 Mishnah 1

זבחים פרק ב׳ משנה א׳


With regard to all slaughtered offerings, if the one who collected their blood was a non-priest; or a priest who was an acute mourner, i.e., one whose relative has died and has not yet been buried; or one who was ritually impure who immersed that day and is waiting for nightfall for the purification process to be completed; or one who has not yet brought an atonement offering, e.g., a zav or leper after the seventh day of the purification process; or a priest lacking the requisite priestly vestments; or one who did not wash his hands and feet from the water in the Basin prior to performing the Temple service; or an uncircumcised priest; or a ritually impure priest; or if the one who collected the blood was sitting; or if he was standing not on the floor of the Temple but upon vessels, or upon an animal, or upon the feet of another, he has disqualified the offering. If he collected the blood with his left hand, he disqualified the blood for offering. In this last case, Rabbi Shimon deems it fit. If the blood spilled on the floor before the priest managed to collect it into a vessel, and the priest then collected it from the floor into a vessel, it is disqualified. If the priest placed the blood upon the ramp leading up to the altar, or if he placed it on the wall of the altar in an area that is not opposite the base of the altar, i.e., in those parts of the altar where there is no foundation; or if he placed the blood that is to be placed below the red line that runs along the middle of the altar, e.g., the blood of a burnt offering, above the red line, or if he placed the blood that is to be placed above the red line, e.g., the blood of a sin offering, below the red line; or if he placed the blood that is to be placed inside the Sanctuary, i.e., on the golden altar or in the Holy of Holies, outside the Sanctuary on the external altar, or if he placed the blood that is to be placed outside the Sanctuary inside the Sanctuary, in all these cases the offering is disqualified. Nevertheless, there is no liability for karet for one who partakes of these offerings.

כָּל הַזְּבָחִים שֶׁקִּבֵּל דָּמָן זָר, אוֹנֵן, טְבוּל יוֹם, מְחֻסַּר בְּגָדִים, מְחֻסַּר כִּפּוּרִים, שֶׁלֹּא רְחוּץ יָדַיִם וְרַגְלַיִם, עָרֵל, טָמֵא, יוֹשֵׁב, עוֹמֵד עַל גַּבֵּי כֵלִים, עַל גַּבֵּי בְהֵמָה, עַל גַּבֵּי רַגְלֵי חֲבֵרוֹ, פָּסָל. קִבֵּל בַּשְּׂמֹאל, פָּסָל. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן מַכְשִׁיר. נִשְׁפַּךְ הַדָּם עַל הָרִצְפָּה וַאֲסָפוֹ, פָּסוּל. נְתָנוֹ עַל גַּבֵּי הַכֶּבֶשׁ שֶׁלֹּא כְנֶגֶד הַיְסוֹד, נָתַן אֶת הַנִּתָּנִין לְמַטָּן, לְמַעְלָן, וְאֶת הַנִּתָּנִין לְמַעְלָן, לְמַטָּן, אֶת הַנִּתָּנִים בִּפְנִים, בַּחוּץ, וְאֶת הַנִּתָּנִין בַּחוּץ, בִּפְנִים, פָּסוּל וְאֵין בּוֹ כָרֵת:


כל הזבחים שקבל דמן זר – who is not a Kohen, it is disqualified. As it is written (Leviticus 22:2): “[Instruct Aaron and his sons] to be scrupulous about the sacred donations that the Israelite people consecrate to Me, lest they profane [My holy name, Mine the LORD’s],” teaches about the foreigner (i.e., non-Kohen) who transgressed, who profaned the Holy Things.

אונן – a person who sustained a loss of one of the relatives that he is obligated to mourn over them, all the day of the death is called Onen/a mourner before the burial of a kinsman, and he is forbidden to eat Holy Things, but if he served (nevertheless) and profaned . Except for the High Priest who offers sacrifices as a mourner prior to the burial of a kinsman [one is normally obligated to mourn for].

וטבול יום – that his purification is not completed until [after] sunset, as it is written (Leviticus 22:7): “As soon as the sun sets, he shall be pure, [and afterward he may eat of the sacred donations, for they are his food].”

ומחוסר בגדים – a common priest who served with less than four [sets of] garments. And a High Priest who served with less than eight [sets of garments] and because he is lacking priestly garments (which renders the offerings he sacrifices unit, and he is punishable by death at the hands of Heaven – see Exodus 29:9 and Tractate Zevakhim 17b) is disqualified, and similarly someone wearing an excess of priestly garments is disqualified. And similarly, if there was something that interposes between the priest’s undercoat/כתונת and the undergarments/drawers, he is disqualified, for the All-Merciful stated (Leviticus 6:7): “[The priest shall dress in linen raiment,] with linen breeches next to his body,” so that there will be nothing that interposes between the clothing to his skin, but he does don/wear the phylacteries of the head because they are placed on his hair which are visible between the front plate/ציץ (worn by the High Priest across his forehead which is made of gold, extending from one ear to the other – see Exodus 28:36-38) and the priest’s turban/מצנפת.

ומחוסר כפורים (lacking atonement – who must bring a sacrifice to complete it) – as for example, the man or woman with a flux (i.e., זב וזבה ), the leper and the woman who gave birth that completed their purification but had [yet] brought their sacrifices. And we find that the All-Merciful wrote regarding a woman who gave birth (Leviticus 12:8): “The priest shall make expiation on her behalf, and she shall be pure,” it follows that until here, she is impure. And the same law applies to all of the ret of those who are impure who require a sacrifice, that they [remain] in their state of impurity until they bring their atonement as regards partaking of Holy Things and to come to the Sanctuary.

ושלא רחוץ ידים ורגלים – because it is stated regarding the sanctification of the hands and feet that it is a law for all times, and it is stated regarding the raiment of the priesthood as a law for all times, just as concerning the raiment of the priesthood, if he served lacking priestly garments (see Exodus 29:9: “And gird both Aaron and his sons with sashes. And so they shall have priesthood as their right for all time.”), it is disqualified, even if he served without washing his hands and feet, he is disqualified. And the other of sanctifying his hands and feet: He doesn’t stand nor does he sit, but he reclines, and he places his right hand on top of his right foot and his left hand on top of his left foot, and rubs his feet with his hands when he is sanctifying [himself]. But he is not permitted to sanctify [himself] in the basin (i.e., laver for the priests in the Temple court) itself, but rather from the water that comes out from it, as it is stated (Exodus 30:19): “And let Aaron and his sons wash their hands and feet [in water drawn] from it,” but not in it, and all of the waters are fit for sanctification, and even if they are not fresh waters.

וערל – if he served, he is disqualified, as it is written in Ezekiel (44:9): “Let no alien, uncircumcised in spirit and flesh, [enter My sanctuary],” an analogy of words in close proximity is made between ערל/uncircumcised and בן – נכר/alien, just as an alien if he served is disqualified, so too is the case of the uncircumcised.

יושב – as it is written (Deuteronomy 18:5): “[For the LORD your God has chosen him and his descendants, out of all of your tribes], to be in attendance/לעמוד לשרת (literally, “to stand to serve”) [in the name of the LORD for all time],” that there should not be service other than while standing.

עומד על גבי כלים – since the floor of the Temple courtyard sanctifies, and the sacred vessels sanctify the thing that comes in contact with them, jus as sacred vessels require that thee is nothing that interposes between it and sacred vessels, even the floor, there should not be a thing that interposes between it and the floor. And needless to say utensils that are not a kind of flesh/meat definitely interpose, bu even the animal which is a kind of meat/flesh, and needless to say, the animal which is not a kind of human being, but rather even the feet of his colleague which are a kind of human being interposes.

קבל בשמאלו פסל – as it is written (Leviticus 4:25): “The priest shall take with his finger some of the blood of the purification offering and put it [on the horns of the altar of burnt offering],” which teaches that he the reception of the blood nor the putting it [on the horns of the altar of burnt offering] should be other than with the right [hand], for it is derived from the [law of the] leper, as it is written concerning it (Leviticus 14:16): “And the priest shall dip his right finger [in the oil that is in the palm of his left hand and sprinkle some of he oil with his finger seven times before the LORD].”

ור"ש מכשיר – he holds that this Biblical verse is expounded in back of him and not in front of/before him, therefore, the finger of “and put it” (Leviticus 4:25) as it is written refers to in back of him, and not as “[the priest] shall take” (ibid.,) which is written in front of him. But the Rabbis hold that this Biblical verse is expounded [both] in front of him/before him and in back of him, for when it is written, “with his finger,” it refers to both, to the taking that is before him/in front of him and to the putting which is in back of him. And the Halakha is according to the Sages.

נשפך על הרצפה – for the blood was not received in a vessel.

ואספו – as it is written (Leviticus 16:14): “He shall take some of the blood of the bull [and sprinkle it with his finger over the cover on the east side],” what is “from some of the blood of the bull?” If you might think , and even from part of the blood, but it is written (Leviticus 4:18): “and all the rest of he blood he shall pour out [at the base of the altar of burnt offering],” so we see that he receives all of the blood, but rather it is called, that he takes blood from the bull, from the bull he will receive it, but not from the ground. For they deduct one letter from this word and add it to another word and expound upon it.

נתנו על הכבש שלא כנגד היסוד פסול – but nevertheless the owners have been expiated/forgiven, but the meat is not eaten. For the All-Merciful stated regarding the blood (Leviticus 17:11): “and I have assigned it to you for making expiation for your lives upon the altar,” since the blood arrived to he altar, the owners were expiated/forgiven.

נתן את הנתנים למטה – from the red line/חוט הסיקרא (a line painted in red encircling the Temple altar at precisely half its height. This marking was necessary because the blood of animal sin-offerings and birds brought as burnt offerings was sprinkled on the upper portion of the altar, above the red line, whereas the blood of all other sacrifices was sprinkled on the lower portion, below the red line), which encircled the altar in the middle. And the blood which was placed in the five upper cubits which are above from the red line are called “placed above” and those that were placed in the five lower cubits which are below from the red line are called “placed below.”

הניתנים בפנים – that their bloods required sprinkling on the golden altar.

בחוץ – on the outer altar.

פסול – and they are forbidden for consumption.

ואין בו כרת – a person who eats from the meat of the Holy Things that whose blood was disqualified in these disqualified things, but he is not punished with extirpation.

כל הזבחים שקבל דמן זר. שאינו כהן, פסול. דכתיב (ויקרא כ״ב:ב׳) וינזרו מקדשי בני ישראל ולא יחללו, למד על הזר שעבד, שחלל את הקדשים:

אונן. מי שמת לו אחד מן הקרובים שהוא חייב להתאבל עליהם, כל יום המיתה קרוי אונן, ואסור לאכול בקדשים. ואם עבד חילל. חוץ מכהן גדול שהוא מקריב אונן:

טבול יום. שאין טהרתו נגמרת עד שיעריב שמשו, כדכתיב (שם) ובא השמש וטהר:

ומחוסר בגדים. כהן הדיוט ששמש בפחות מארבעה בגדים. וכהן גדול ששמש פחות משמונה. וכשם שמחוסר בגדים פסול, כך מיותר בגדים פסול. וכן אם היה דבר חוצץ בין בשרו לכתונת או למכנסים, פסול, דרחמנא אמר (שם ו) ילבש על בשרו, שלא יהא דבר חוצץ בין הבגדים לבשרו. הלכך כהן בשעת עבודה לא היה מניח תפילין של יד, לפי שהן חוצצים בין הבגד לבשרו. אבל תפילין של ראש היה מניח, לפי שהן מונחין על שערו שהוא נראה בין ציץ למצנפת:

ומחוסר כפורים. כגון זב וזבה ומצורע ויולדת שנגמרה טהרתן ולא הביאו קרבנותיהם. ואשכחן דכתב רחמנא ביולדת (שם יב) וכפר עליה הכהן וטהרה, מכלל שעד כאן טמאה היא. והוא הדין לכל שאר טמאים הטעונים קרבן, שהן בטומאתן עד שיביאו כפרתן לענין אכילת קדשים ולבא במקדש:

ושלא רחוץ ידים ורגלים. לפי שנאמר בקידוש ידים ורגלים חוקת עולם, ונאמר בבגדי כהונה חוקת עולם, מה בגדי כהונה אם עבד מחוסר בגדים פסל, אף אם עבד שלא רחץ ידיו ורגליו פסל. וסדר קידוש ידים ורגלים, לא עומד ולא יושב אלא מוטה, ומניח ידו הימנית על גבי רגלו הימנית וידו השמאלית על גבי רגלו השמאלית, ומשפשף רגליו בידיו בשעה שהוא מקדש. ואינו רשאי לקדש בתוך הכיור עצמו, אלא מן המים שיוצאים ממנו, שנאמר (שמות ל׳:י״ט) ורחצו אהרן ובניו ממנו, ולא בתוכו. וכל המימות כשרים לקידוש. ואפילו שאינן מים חיים:

וערל. אם עבד פסל. דכתיב (ביחזקאל מ״ד:ט׳) כל בן נכר ערל לב וערל בשר, הקיש ערל לבן נכר, מה בן נכר אם עבד פסל, אף ערל כן:

יושב. דכתיב (דברים י״ח:ה׳) לעמוד לשרת, שלא יהא שירות אלא מעומד:

עומד על גבי כלים. הואיל ורצפת העזרה מקדשת, וכלי שרת מקדשין הדבר הנוגע בהן, מה כלי שרת צריך שלא יהא דבר חוצץ בינו לכלי שרת, אך רצפה לא יהא דבר חוצץ בינו לבין הרצפה. ולא מיבעיא כלים שאינן מין בשר דודאי חייצי, אלא אפילו בהמה שהיא מין בשר. ולא מבעיא בהמה שאינה מין אדם, אלא אפילו רגלי חבירו שהן מין אדם חוצצים:

קבל בשמאל פסל. דכתיב (ויקרא ד׳:כ״ה) ולקח הכהן מדם החטאת באצבעו ונתן, מלמד שלא תהא קבלת הדם ולא נתינה אלא בימין. דכל מקום שנאמר יד או אצבע אינו אלא בימין, דיליף ממצורע דכתיב ביה (שם י״ד) וטבל הכהן את אצבעו הימנית:

ור״ש מכשיר. סבר מקרא נדרש לאחריו ולא לפניו, הלכך אצבע אונתן דכתיב בתריה קאי, ולא אולקח דכתיב לקמיה. ורבנן סברי מקרא נדרש לפניו ולאחריו, וכי כתיב אצבע אתרווייהו קאי, אלקיחה דלפניו ואנתינה דאחריו. והלכה כחכמים:

נשפך על הרצפה. שלא נתקבל הדם בכלי:

ואספו פסול. דכתיב (שם ט״ז) ולקח מדם הפר, מאי מדם הפר, אי סלקא דעתך ואפילו מקצת דם, והא כתיב (שם ד׳) ואת כל דם הפר ישפוך, אלמא צריך שיקבל כל הדם, אלא קרי ביה ולקח דם מהפר, מן הפר יקבלנו ולא מן הארץ. שגורעין אות מתיבה זו ומוסיפין אותה על תיבה אחרת ודורשים אותה:

נתנו על הכבש שלא כנגד היסוד פסול. ומכל מקום נתכפרו הבעלים. אלא שהבשר אינו נאכל. דאמר רחמנא גבי דם (שם י״ז) ואני נתתיו לכם על המזבח לכפר, כיון שהגיע דם למזבח נתכפרו הבעלים:

נתן את הנתנים למטה. מחוט הסיקרא שהיה חגור למזבח באמצע. והדמים הנתנין בחמש אמות העליונות שהן למעלה מן החוט נקראים הנתנים למעלה והניתנין בה׳ אמות תחתונות שהן למטה מן החוט, נקראים הנתנים למטה:

הנתנים בפנים. שדמן טעון הזיה על מזבח הזהב:

בחוץ. על מזבח החיצון:

פסול. ואסור באכילה:

ואין בו כרת. האוכל מבשר הקדשים שנפסל דמו בפסולים הללו, אינו ענוש כרת: