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Mishnayos Zevachim Perek 14 Mishnah 4

זבחים פרק י"ד משנה ד׳


Until the Tabernacle was established, private altars were permitted and the sacrificial service was performed by the firstborn. And from the time that the Tabernacle was established, private altars were prohibited and the sacrificial service was performed by the priests. Offerings of the most sacred order were then eaten within the curtains surrounding the courtyard of the Tabernacle in the wilderness and offerings of lesser sanctity were eaten throughout the camp of Israel.

עַד שֶׁלֹּא הוּקַם הַמִּשְׁכָּן, הָיוּ הַבָּמוֹת מֻתָּרוֹת, וַעֲבוֹדָה בַּבְּכוֹרוֹת. מִשֶּׁהוּקַם הַמִּשְׁכָּן, נֶאֶסְרוּ הַבָּמוֹת, וַעֲבוֹדָה בַּכֹּהֲנִים. קָדְשֵׁי קָדָשִׁים, נֶאֱכָלִים לִפְנִים מִן הַקְּלָעִים. קָדָשִׁים קַלִּים, בְּכָל מַחֲנֵה יִשְׂרָאֵל:


והעבודה בבכורות – as it is written (Exodus 24:5): “He designated some of the young men among the Israelites, [and they offered burnt offerings and sacrificed bulls and offerings of well-being to the LORD], these are the first-born that the Divine Service was upon them.

משהוקם המשכן נאסרו הבמות – as it is written (Leviticus 17:4): “and does not bring it (i.e., ox, sheep or goat in the camp) to the entrance of the Tent of Meeting [to present it as an offering to the LORD,” it follows that the prohibition depends upon the Tent of Meeting. But particularly for the Israelite, the improvised altars were forbidden, but heathens are permitted to offer up [sacrifices] to Heaven in any place, and even at this time. But it is prohibited for an Israelite to be their agents to offer up [sacrifices] or to assist them. But to instruct them in the order of the offering of sacrifices is permitted.

והעבודה בבכורות. דכתיב (שמות כ״ד) וישלח את נערי בני ישראל, אלו הבכורות שהעבודה בהם:

משהוקם המשכן נאסרו הבמות. דכתיב (ויקרא י״ז) ואל פתח אוהל מועד לא הביאו, מכלל דבאוהל מועד תלי אסורא. ודוקא לישראל נאסרו הבמות, אבל נכרים מותרים להקריב לשמים בכל מקום, ואפילו בזמן הזה. ואסור לישראל להיות שלוחם להקריב ולא לסייעם. אבל להורות להם סדר הקרבה שרי: