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Mishnayos Zevachim Perek 14 Mishnah 1

זבחים פרק י"ד משנה א׳


With regard to the red heifer of purification that one burned outside its pit, the pit being an excavation on the Mount of Olives opposite the entrance to the Sanctuary designated for its slaughter and its burning, and likewise the scapegoat that one sacrificed outside the Temple courtyard rather than casting it off a cliff as prescribed, he is exempt from punishment for violating the transgression of slaughtering and sacrificing outside the Temple courtyard. The source for this is as it is stated with regard to slaughter of sacrificial animals outside the courtyard: “Whatever man…that slaughters outside the camp, and to the entrance of the Tent of Meeting he did not bring it, to present it as an offering to the Lord before the Tabernacle of the Lord” (Leviticus 17:3–4). From that verse it is derived: For any offering that is not fit to come to the entrance of the Tent of Meeting for sacrifice on the altar, e.g., the red heifer and the scapegoat, one is not liable for its slaughter and sacrifice outside its place.

פָּרַת חַטָּאת שֶׁשְּׂרָפָהּ חוּץ מִגִּתָּהּ, וְכֵן שָׂעִיר הַמִּשְׁתַּלֵּחַ שֶׁהִקְרִיבוֹ בַחוּץ, פָּטוּר, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא יז), וְאֶל פֶּתַח אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד לֹא הֱבִיאוֹ. כֹּל שֶׁאֵינוֹ רָאוּי לָבֹא אֶל פֶּתַח אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד, אֵין חַיָּבִין עָלָיו:


פרת חטאת – the red heifer. It is stated there (Numbers 19:9): “[A man who is pure shall gather up the ashes of the cow and deposit them outside the camp in a pure place…]. It is for purification.”

חוץ מגתה (outside of its marked-off space – the phrase also appears in Tractate Parah, Chapter 4, Mishnah 2) – the pile of wood on the altar in the Temple that are arranged like a vat (i.e., marked off space) that they make for it in the place that they slaughter it on the Mount of Olives opposite the entrance of the Temple (i.e., the Hall containing the golden altar). But if he slaughtered it outside of that place, it is invalid. But he is not liable for it because one can slaughter Holy Things outside [the Temple], for the All-Merciful exempted him since it is written (Leviticus 17:4): “and does not bring it to the entrance of the Tent of Meeting [to present it as an offering to the LORD, before the LORD’s Tabernacle, bloodguilt shall be imputed to that man: he has shed blood; that man shall be cut off from among his people.],” but since Scripture was strict to punish him that he did not bring it [to the entrance of the Tent of Meeting], one learns from it that while standing to bring it in [to the entrance of the Tent of Meeting] is what Scripture is speaking about.

כל שאינו ראוי לבוא – etc. that will not offer a sacrifice in the future.

פרת חטאת. פרה אדומה. שנאמר בה חטאת היא:

חוץ מגיתה. מערכה של עצים מסודרין כמין גת היו עושים לה במקום ששוחטים אותה בהר המשחה כנגד פתחו של היכל. ואם שחטה חוץ למקום ההוא פסולה. אבל אינו חייב עליה משום שוחט קדשים בחוץ, דרחמנא פטריה מדכתיב ואל פתח אהל מועד לא הביאו, ומדקפיד קרא לענשו שלא הביאו, שמע מינה בעומד להביאו שם משתעי קרא:

כל שאינו ראוי לבוא. כו׳ שאינו עתיד להקריב: