Let's finish Mishnayos in memory of those who were murdered in Israel.
Pledge Mishnayos
Mishnah.org Logo

Mishnayos Zevachim Perek 12 Mishnah 1

זבחים פרק י"ב משנה א׳


A priest who was ritually impure who immersed that day and is waiting for nightfall for the purification process to be completed, and a priest who has not yet brought an atonement offering to complete the purification process, e.g., a zav and a leper who did not bring their requisite atonement offerings, who are not yet permitted to partake of sacrificial meat, do not receive a share of sacrificial meat along with the other members of the patrilineal priestly family serving in the Temple that day, in order to partake of it in the evening after the offerings were sacrificed, even though after nightfall he would be permitted to partake of the offerings. A priest who is an acute mourner, i.e., if one of his relatives for whom he is obligated to mourn died that day, is permitted to touch sacrificial meat, as he is not ritually impure. But he may not sacrifice offerings, and he does not receive a share of sacrificial meat in order to partake of it in the evening. Blemished priests, whether they are temporarily blemished or whether they are permanently blemished, receive a share and partake of the offerings with their priestly brethren, but do not sacrifice the offerings. The principle is: Any priest who is unfit for the service that specific day does not receive a share of the sacrificial meat, and anyone who has no share of the meat has no share in the hides of the animals, to which the priests are entitled as well. Even if the priest was ritually impure only at the time of the sprinkling of the blood of the offering and he was pure at the time of the burning of the fats of that offering, he still does not receive a share of the meat, as it is stated: “He that sacrifices the blood of the peace offerings and the fat, from among the sons of Aaron, shall have the right thigh for a portion” (Leviticus 7:33). One who cannot sprinkle the blood does not receive a share in the meat.

טְבוּל יוֹם וּמְחֻסַּר כִּפּוּרִים, אֵינָן חוֹלְקִים בַּקֳּדָשִׁים לֶאֱכֹל לָעָרֶב. אוֹנֵן, נוֹגֵעַ וְאֵינוֹ מַקְרִיב, וְאֵינוֹ חוֹלֵק לֶאֱכֹל לָעָרֶב. בַּעֲלֵי מוּמִין, בֵּין בַּעֲלֵי מוּמִין קְבוּעִין, בֵּין בַּעֲלֵי מוּמִין עוֹבְרִין, חוֹלְקִין וְאוֹכְלִין, אֲבָל לֹא מַקְרִיבִין. וְכֹל שֶׁאֵינוֹ רָאוּי לָעֲבוֹדָה, אֵינוֹ חוֹלֵק בַּבָּשָׂר. וְכֹל שֶׁאֵין לוֹ בַּבָּשָׂר, אֵין לוֹ בָעוֹרוֹת. אֲפִלּוּ טָמֵא בִשְׁעַת זְרִיקַת דָּמִים וְטָהוֹר בִּשְׁעַת הֶקְטֵר חֲלָבִים, אֵינוֹ חוֹלֵק בַּבָּשָׂר, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא ז), הַמַּקְרִיב אֶת דַּם הַשְּׁלָמִים וְאֶת הַחֵלֶב מִבְּנֵי אַהֲרֹן לוֹ תִהְיֶה שׁוֹק הַיָּמִין לְמָנָה:


טבול יום – he (i.e., a Kohen) who has immersed [in a ritual bath] and came out but his sunset has yet occurred (i.e., see the rationale provided by the Bartenura commentary in Tractate Berakhot, Chapter 1, Mishnah 1 for defining when the Shema is recited in the evening).

ומחוסר כפורים – such as person with a flux or a leper or a woman who gave birth who immersed [in a ritual bath] and their [respective] sunsets had arrived but they had not brought their atonement [sacrifices].

אינן חולקין בקדשים – since it is not appropriate for them to be eating [until they bring their sacrifices on the morrow], they do not divide [the food] for the evening when they become pure, as it is written (Leviticus 6:19): “The priest who offers it as a sin offering shall eat of it,” the Kohen that is appropriate for purification shares it, he who is not appropriate for purification does not share it. But it is impossible to state that a Kohen who is not appropriate for purification at the time of the offering does not eat, for there is a minor that is not appropriate for purification who consumes it, but by force, he should eat it, as the Biblical verse states, he should divide it in order to be able to eat from it, it is stated, for the Biblical verse excludes it from division in the language of seating, we learn from it that a Kohen who is appropriate for eating can divide it, but one who is not qualified for eating does not divide it. Therefore, those with blemishes divide it, even though they are not appropriate for purification, they are appropriate for eating, as it is written (Leviticus 21:22): “He may eat of the food of his God, of the most holy as well as the holy” (though as we learn in the previous verse, if the Kohen has a defect, he shall not be qualified to offer up the food of his God).

אונן נוגע – and he who immersed [in a ritual bath] but he whose mind was not diverted from his immersion all the while that he is a mourning a kinsman prior to burial. For if he diverted his mind and then touched it, even after he immersed [in a ritual bath], he has invalidated it.

וכל שאינו ראוי לעבודה אינו חולק בבשר – except for those who have blemishes for even though that they are not qualified for Temple service, they divide/share the meat, for we extend the scope of he Biblical verse explicitly, as it is written (Leviticus 21:22): “He may eat of the food of his God, of the most holy as well as of the holy,” and it is written (Leviticus 6:11): “Only the males among Aaron’s descendants may eat of it,” to include those with defects for the sharing of the food, if for eating, it is already stated, “he may eat….as well as of the holy.”

וטהור בשעת הקטר חלבים – which is all night long (see the end of Tractate Berakhot, Chapter 1, Mishnah 1). As for example, that he immersed and was purified with the setting of the sun.

אינו חולק – for a Kohen does not share in the Holy Things until he is pure from the time of the sprinkling of the blood until the time of the burning of the fat, but if he became ritually impure between one and the other, he does not share in the Holy Things.

טבול יום. שטבל ועלה ולא העריב שמשו:

ומחוסר כפורים. כגון זב ומצורע ויולדת שטבלו והעריב שמשן ולא הביאו כפרתן:

אינן חולקים בקדשים. הואיל ואין ראויין לאכילה אין חולקים לאכול לערב כשיטהרו, דכתיב (ויקרא ו׳:י״ט) הכהן המחטא אותה יאכלנה, כהן הראוי לחטוי חולק, שאינו ראוי לחטוי אינו חולק. ואי אפשר לומר כהן שאינו ראוי לחטוי בשעת הקרבה אינו אוכל, דהא איכא קטן דאינו ראוי לחטוי ואוכל, אלא על כרחך יאכלנה דאמר קרא יחלוק בה כדי לאכול ממנה קאמר, ומדאפקה קרא לחלוקה בלשון אכילה, שמע מינה דכהן הראוי לאכילה חולק, שאין ראוי לאכילה אינו חולק. הלכך בעלי מומין חולקין, שאע״פ שאין ראויין לחטוי, ראויין הן לאכילה, כדכתיב (שם כ״א) ומן הקדשים יאכל:

אונן נוגע. והוא שטבל ולא הסיח דעתו מן הטבילה כל זמן שהוא אונן. שאם הסיח דעתו ונגע, אפילו לאחר שטבל פסל:

וכל שאינו ראוי לעבודה אינו חולק בבשר. חוץ מבעלי מומין שאע״פ שאינן ראויין לעבודה חולקים בבשר, דרבינהו קרא בהדיא, דכתיב (שם) לחם אלהיו מקדשי הקדשים וגו׳, וכתיב (שם ו׳) כל זכר בבני אהרן יאכלנה, לרבות בעלי מומין למחלוקת, אי לאכילה הרי כבר אמור ומן הקדשים יאכל:

וטהור בשעת הקטר חלבים. שהוא כל הלילה. כגון שטבל וטהר בהערב שמש:

אינו חולק. שאין הכהן חולק בקדשים עד שיהא טהור משעת זריקת דמים עד שעת הקטר חלבים, ואם נטמא בין כך ובין כך אינו חולק: