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Mishnayos Yoma Perek 8 Mishnah 1

יומא פרק ח׳ משנה א׳


On Yom Kippur, the day on which there is a mitzva by Torah law to afflict oneself, it is prohibited to engage in eating and in drinking, and in bathing, and in smearing oil on one’s body, and in wearing shoes, and in conjugal relations. However, the king, in deference to his eminence, and a new bride within thirty days of her marriage, who wishes to look especially attractive at the beginning of her relationship with her husband, may wash their faces on Yom Kippur. A woman after childbirth, who is suffering, may wear shoes because going barefoot causes her pain. This is the statement of Rabbi Eliezer. The Rabbis prohibit these activities for a king, a new bride, and a woman after childbirth.

יוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים אָסוּר בַּאֲכִילָה וּבִשְׁתִיָּה וּבִרְחִיצָה וּבְסִיכָה וּבִנְעִילַת הַסַּנְדָּל וּבְתַשְׁמִישׁ הַמִּטָּה. וְהַמֶּלֶךְ וְהַכַּלָּה יִרְחֲצוּ אֶת פְּנֵיהֶם, וְהֶחָיָה תִנְעֹל אֶת הַסַּנְדָּל, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר, וַחֲכָמִים אוֹסְרִין:


יום הכפיורים אסור באכילה ובשתיה – even though that regarding eating and drinking [on Yom Kippur] which are punishable by extirpation, because the Mishnah is required to teach the rest of the “afflictions” that lack [the punishment of] extirpation, it is taught [in the Mishnah] that it is prohibited. And these five afflictions correspond to the five [times] affliction is written in the Torah, of “The Sabbath of complete rest” of the Torah portion “Say to the Kohanim” (Leviticus 23:32) and “The Sabbath of Complete Rest” of “Aharei Mot/After the Death” (Leviticus 16:31), and “on the tenth day of the seventh month” (Numbers 29:7) of the Book of Numbers and “Mark the tenth day of this seventh month” (Leviticus 23:27) of “Speak to the Kohanim” (EMOR), and “This shall be to you for a law for all time” (Leviticus 16:34) of Ahahrtei Mot, in all of them, it is written, "תענו ועניתם"/”you shall afflict” (singular and plural), and these of our Mishnah are also five forms of affliction, as drinking and eating are considered as one.

המלך – needs to appear nice, as it is written (Isaiah 33:17): “When your eyes behold a king in his beauty.”

והכלה – she requires beauty in order to make her beloved to her husband, and all thirty days [immediately following her marriage] she is called a bride.

והחיה – a woman in childbirth.

תנעול – on account of the cold.

דברי ר"א – these refer to all of them – to the king, the bride and the woman in childbirth. And the Halakha is according to Rabbi Eliezer.

יום הכפורים אסור באכילה ובשתיה. אע״ג דבאכילה ושתיה ענוש כרת משום דבעי למתני שאר ענויין דלית בהו כרת תנא אסור. והני ה׳ ענויין כנגד ה׳ ענויין הכתובים בתורה, דשבת שבתון דאמור אל הכהנים ושבת שבתון דאחרי מות ובעשור לחודש דחומש הפקודים ואך בעשור לחודש דאמור אל הכהנים והיתה זאת לכם לחקת עולם דאחרי מות בכולהו כתיב תענו ועניתם. והני דמתניתין נמי חמשה ענויין נינהו, דשתיה ואכילה אחת הן:

המלך. צריך שיתראה נאה דכתיב (ישעיה ל״ג) מלך ביפיו תחזנה עיניך:

והכלה. צריכה נוי כדי לחבבה על בעלה. וכל שלשים יום קרויה כלה:

והחיה. יולדת:

תנעול. מפני הצנה:

דברי ר״א. אכלהו קאי, אמלך וכלה וחיה. והלכה כר״א: