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Mishnayos Yevamos Perek 7 Mishnah 1

יבמות פרק ז׳ משנה א׳


A widow married to a High Priest, and a divorcée or a yevama who performed ḥalitza [ḥalutza] married to a common priest are all unions prohibited by Torah law. If one of these women brought with her into the marriage slaves of usufruct [melog] property or slaves of guaranteed investment, then the slaves of usufruct property do not partake of teruma but the slaves of guaranteed investment do partake of teruma. And these are slaves of usufruct property: They are those with regard to whom the couple stipulated that if the slaves die, their death is her loss, and if they increase in value, their increase is her gain. Although the husband is obligated in their sustenance, they do not partake of teruma, as they belong to her, not to him. He owns only the right of their use while he is married to her. And these are slaves of guaranteed investment: They are those with regard to whom the couple stipulated that if they die, their death is his loss, and if they increase in value, their increase is his gain. Since he bears financial responsibility for compensating her in the event of their loss, they partake of teruma, as they are considered his property.

אַלְמָנָה לְכֹהֵן גָּדוֹל, גְּרוּשָׁה וַחֲלוּצָה לְכֹהֵן הֶדְיוֹט, הִכְנִיסָה לוֹ עַבְדֵי מְלוֹג וְעַבְדֵי צֹאן בַּרְזֶל, עַבְדֵי מְלוֹג לֹא יֹאכְלוּ בַתְּרוּמָה, עַבְדֵי צֹאן בַּרְזֶל יֹאכֵלוּ. וְאֵלּוּ הֵן עַבְדֵי מְלוֹג, אִם מֵתוּ, מֵתוּ לָהּ, וְאִם הוֹתִירוּ, הוֹתִירוּ לָהּ. אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא חַיָּב בִּמְזוֹנוֹתָן, הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ לֹא יֹאכְלוּ בַתְּרוּמָה. וְאֵלּוּ הֵן עַבְדֵי צֹאן בַּרְזֶל, אִם מֵתוּ, מֵתוּ לוֹ, וְאִם הוֹתִירוּ, הוֹתִירוּ לוֹ. הוֹאִיל וְהוּא חַיָּב בְּאַחֲרָיוּתָן, הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ יֹאכְלוּ בַתְּרוּמָה:


אלמנה לכ"ג: עבדי מלוג – what the woman leaves for herself and does not write in her Ketubah is called

נכסי (עבדי) מלוג – a wife’s estate of which the husband has the fruition without responsibility for loss or deterioration - that the husband “plucks” that property like the plucking of chickens because he consumes the fruits of those properties and if they lessened [In value] they lessened for her, and if they increased, they increased for her. But נכסי צאן ברזל (mort-main, the wife’s estate held by her husband, which, in the case of her death or divorce, he must restore “in specie,” being responsible with all his landed property for loss or deterioration) – they are the properties that she brought in to him and what he adds to it is hers, and they wrote into the Ketubah: the total amount that so-and-so accepted upon himself is such -and such, in her Ketubah, and therefore, they are called צאן ברזל – as the principal exists like iron, and if everyone died, the husband is liable to because they are accustomed to place the sheep in such-and-such an appraisement of valuables (brought into the marriage by the wife) , and the shepherd would be responsible for them (if lost), according to the estimate even if all the sheep died, hence, they are called properties that the husband accepts responsibility for - נכסי צאן ברזל (that must be returned to the wife “in specie” in the event of death or divorce.

אלמנה לכהן גדול: עבדי מלוג. מה שהאשה משיירת לעצמה ואינה כותבת בכתובתה, נקראים נכסי מלוג, שהבעל מולג אותם נכסים כמליגת התרנגולים, מפני שהוא אוכל פירות אותן נכסים, ואם פחתו פחתו לה ואם הותירו הותירו לה. ונכסי צאן ברזל הם הנכסים שהכניסה לו ומה שהוסיף הוא לה וכתבו בכתובה סך הכל קיבל עליו פלוני כך וכך בכתובתה. ולכך נקראים צאן ברזל, שהקרן קיים כברזל, שאם מתו כולן, חייב הבעל לשלם. ולפי שהיו רגילים לשום הצאן בשומת כך וכך והיה הרועה חייב באחריותן כפי השומא אפילו אם מתו כל הצאן, לכך נקראו הנכסים שהבעל מקבל עליו אחריותן נכסי צאן ברזל:

עבדי מלוג לא יאכלו. לפי שהן שלה והיא חללה: