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Mishnayos Yevamos Perek 4 Mishnah 3

יבמות פרק ד׳ משנה ג׳


With regard to a widow waiting for her yavam to either consummate a levirate marriage or perform ḥalitza with her, i.e., a yevama, to whom property was bequeathed: Beit Shammai and Beit Hillel both agree that she may sell or give away that property ab initio, and that if she did, the transfer is valid. Since she has only a levirate bond with the yavam, she retains total control of the property. This is in contrast to a betrothed woman, concerning whom Beit Hillel rule that she may not sell such property because her betrothed also has rights to it (Ketubot 78a). If she died, what should be done with the money assured to her in her marriage contract by her deceased husband and with her property that enters and leaves the marriage with her, in which a husband only ever has a usufructuary interest? Beit Shammai say: The husband’s heirs, i.e., the yavam, who stands to inherit from the husband when he consummates the levirate marriage, should divide up the property together with her father’s heirs, i.e., the woman’s family. And Beit Hillel say: The property retains its previous ownership status. Therefore, money assured to her in her marriage contract remains in the possession of the husband’s heirs. Since it was to be paid from the husband’s own property, the money is retained by his estate and passes to his heirs. And her property that enters and leaves the marriage with her remains in the possession of the father’s heirs. Since those properties belonged to her, upon her death they are inherited by her father or his heirs.

שׁוֹמֶרֶת יָבָם שֶׁנָּפְלוּ לָהּ נְכָסִים, מוֹדִים בֵּית שַׁמַּאי וּבֵית הִלֵּל שֶׁמּוֹכֶרֶת, וְנוֹתֶנֶת, וְקַיָּם. מֵתָה, מַה יַּעֲשׂוּ בִכְתֻבָּתָהּ וּבַנְּכָסִים הַנִּכְנָסִים וְיוֹצְאִין עִמָּהּ, בֵּית שַׁמַּאי אוֹמְרִים, יַחֲלֹקוּ יוֹרְשֵׁי הַבַּעַל עִם יוֹרְשֵׁי הָאָב. וּבֵית הִלֵּל אוֹמְרִים, נְכָסִים בְּחֶזְקָתָן, כְּתֻבָּה בְּחֶזְקַת יוֹרְשֵׁי הַבַּעַל, נְכָסִים הַנִּכְנָסִים וְיוֹצְאִים עִמָּהּ בְּחֶזְקַת יוֹרְשֵׁי הָאָב:


שומרת יבם = she is waiting and expecting to undergo levirate marriage.

נפלו לה נכסים – from her father’s house.

מה יעשו בכתובתה – the [100] Maneh or the two-hundred and the supplement and the dowry that she brought in to him and he accepted responsibility for the surety (i.e., mortgaged property).

ובנכסים היוצאין ונכנסין – the wife’s estate of which the husband has the fruition/usufruct without responsibility for loss or deterioration when she enters [into the marriage], they enter with her, and when she leaves from her husband, they go out with her.

בש"א יחלוקו יורשי הבעל עם יורשי האב – for she was doubtfully married and the levir takes possession of one-half of her inheritance from doubt for the husband inherits his wife but this case where she is doubtfully married to him, he takes possession of one-half.

נכסים בחזקתן – mort-main (i.e., the wife’s estate held by her husband, which, in case of her death or divorce, he must restore in specie, being responsible with all his landed property for loss or deterioration (see Tractate Yevamot, Chapter 7, Mishnah 1) in their presumptive legal status, but the School of Hillel did not explain whether the properties were in the possession of the inheritors of the woman or whether her properties were in the possession of the inheritors of the husband, for their surety is upon him, but as regards to law, they are divided, even according to the School of Hillel.

שומרת יבם. שהיא ממתנת ומצפה ליבם:

שנפלו לה נכסים. מבית אביה:

מה יעשו בכתובתה. מנה ומאתים ותוספת ונדוניא שהכניסה לו וקבל עליו אחריות:

ובנכסים הנכנסים ויוצאים. נכסי מלוג. שכשהיא נכנסת נכנסין עמה וכשיוצאת מבעלה יוצאין עמה:

בית שמאי אומרים יחלוקו יורשי הבעל עם יורשי האב. דספק נשואה היא וזוכה היבם בחצי ירושתה מספק, שהבעל יורש את אשתו, וזה שספק נשואה היא אצלו זוכה בפלגא:

נכסים בחזקתן. נכסי צאן ברזל, בחזקתן. ולא פירשו ב״ה אי בחזקת יורשי האשה שהיו הנכסים שלה, אי בחזקת יורשי הבעל שאחריותם עליו. ולענין דינא יחלוקו אפילו לדברי ב״ה: