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Mishnayos Yevamos Perek 4 Mishnah 10

יבמות פרק ד׳ משנה י׳


A yevama may neither perform ḥalitza nor enter into levirate marriage until she has waited three months from the time of her husband’s death. And similarly, all other women may not be betrothed and may not marry until they have waited three months since their previous marriage ended. This waiting period is necessary so that, should a woman give birth shortly after remarrying, it will be obvious who the father of the child is. This applies both to virgins and non-virgins, both to divorcées and widows, and both to women who were married to their previous husbands and women who were only betrothed. All of these women must wait three months before remarrying even though for some of them the reason for doing so does not apply. Rabbi Yehuda says: The women who were married to their previous husbands may be betrothed, and the women who were only betrothed to their previous husbands may marry without waiting three months. This is true except for the betrothed women that are in the area of Judea, due to the fact that the groom is familiar with her. The custom in Judea was for the couple to be secluded together before the marriage so that they would become familiar with each other. This led to the possibility that they might cohabit even during their betrothal period. Rabbi Yehuda holds that one does not need to wait three months whenever the reason for doing so does not apply. Rabbi Yosei says: All of the women may be betrothed within three months even if they were previously married, except for a widow, due to the mourning period she must observe for her deceased husband.

הַיְבָמָה לֹא תַחֲלֹץ וְלֹא תִתְיַבֵּם, עַד שֶׁיֶּשׁ לָהּ שְׁלֹשָׁה חֳדָשִׁים. וְכֵן כָּל שְׁאָר הַנָּשִׁים לֹא יִתְאָרְסוּ וְלֹא יִנָּשְׂאוּ, עַד שֶׁיִּהְיוּ לָהֶן שְׁלֹשָׁה חֳדָשִׁים. אֶחָד בְּתוּלוֹת וְאֶחָד בְּעוּלוֹת, אֶחָד גְּרוּשׁוֹת וְאֶחָד אַלְמָנוֹת, אֶחָד נְשׂוּאוֹת וְאֶחָד אֲרוּסוֹת. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, הַנְּשׂוּאוֹת יִתְאָרְסוּ, וְהָאֲרוּסוֹת יִנָּשְׂאוּ, חוּץ מִן הָאֲרוּסוֹת שֶׁבִּיהוּדָה, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁלִּבּוֹ גַּס בָּהּ. רַבִּי יוֹסֵי אוֹמֵר, כָּל הַנָּשִׁים יִתְאָרְסוּ, חוּץ מִן הָאַלְמָנָה, מִפְּנֵי הָאִבּוּל:


לא תחלוץ וכו' - In the Gemara (Tractate Yevamot 41b), it explains the reason, as it is written (Deuteronomy 25:7): “But if the man does not want to marry his brother’s widow, his brother’s widow shall appear [before the elders in the gate and declare, ‘My husband’s brother refuses to establish a name in Israel for his brother; he will not perform the duty of the levir’],” but if he desires, he should perform the duty of the levir (i.e., perform levirate marriage). All who go up for levirate marriage go up for Halitzah and all who do not go up for levirate marriage do not go up for Halitzah.

בתולות – we make the decree because of women who have had sexual relations, and betrothed woman because of married women, and such is the Halakha. And these three months are ninety days excluding from it the day her husband died, or when she was divorced from him, and excluding from it the day when she became betrothed to him.

הנשואות יתארסו – that the reason that she is forbidden in order to distinguish between the seed of the first to the seed of the second, so that she should not give birth to a undetermined/doubtful son (i.e., so that we would know who the actual father was), a son of seven months [pregnancy] to the first [husband] or doubtfully a son of seven [months] to the latter [husband] and with regard to betrothed women, one doesn’t not have to say this.

והארוסות ינשאו – for she was not made pregnant from the first [husband].

חוץ מארוסה שביהודה – for they would bring together the bride and the groom in Judea prior to their entrance to the wedding canopy in order that he would be used to her and he would sport with her and they would not be embarrassed one from the other through the commanded act of sexual intimacy; therefore, we suspect that perhaps he had sexual intercourse [with her].

כל הנשים יתארסו – because Rabbi Yehuda does not distinguish between widows to divorcees and permits for the widow to be betrothed even within thrirty days of the days of her mourning; Rabbi Yosi comes to dispute him on this and prohibits the widow to become betrothed within thirty days of her days of mourning.

לא תחלוץ וכו׳ מפרש בגמרא טעמא, דכתיב (דברים כ״ה) אם לא יחפוץ האיש לקחת את יבמתו ועלתה יבמתו וגו׳, הא אם יחפוץ ייבם, כל העולה ליבום עולה לחליצה וכל שאינו עולה ליבום אינו עולה לחליצה:

בתולות. גזרינן אטו בעולות. וארוסות אטו נשואות. וכן הלכה. והנך שלשה חדשים הם תשעים יום חוץ מיום שמת בו בעלה או שנתגרשה בו וחוץ מיום שנתארסה בו:

הנשואות יתארסו. דטעמא דאסורה כדי להבחין בין זרע ראשון לזרע שני, שלא תלד בן, ספק בן תשעה לראשון ספק בן שבעה לאחרון, ובארוסות ליכא למימר הכי:

והארוסות ינשאו. דהא לא איעבור מראשון:

חוץ מארוסה שביהודה. שהיו מיחדין את הכלה ואת החתן ביהודה קודם כניסתן לחופה כדי שיהיה רגיל ומשחק עמה ולא יהיו בושים זה מזה בבעילת מצוה, לכך חיישינן שמא בעל:

כל הנשים יתארסו. משום דר״י לא מפליג בין אלמנה לגרושה ומתיר לאלמנה ליארס אפילו תוך שלשים יום של ימי אבלה, אתא רבי יוסי לאפלוגי עליה בהא, ואסר לאלמנה ליארס תוך שלשים של ימי אבלה: