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Mishnayos Yevamos Perek 2 Mishnah 1

יבמות פרק ב׳ משנה א׳


Each of the women enumerated in the first chapter causes exemption from levirate marriage and ḥalitza for her rival wives. This is due to the close family relationship she has with her brother-in-law, making her forbidden to him. The single exception is the case explained in this mishna. What is the case of the wife of a brother with whom he did not coexist? For example: If there were two brothers, and one of them died childless, and subsequently a brother of theirs was born, after which the second brother, the elder, took his deceased brother’s wife in levirate marriage, and then died as well. Consequently, two women require levirate marriage: The widow of the first brother who had been taken in levirate marriage by the second brother, and the widow of the second brother, the first widow’s rival wife. The first widow, who had been the wife of the first brother to die, goes out without any obligation to be taken in levirate marriage by the youngest brother who was born later, since she is the wife of a brother with whom he did not coexist. The first deceased brother never lived at the same time as the newly born brother. The second widow, who had been married to the second brother, is exempt due to her rival wife. The mishna discusses an additional situation: If the second brother had performed only levirate betrothal with her, meaning that he had not yet consummated the marriage, and then died, both the wife betrothed by a levirate betrothal to the second brother and the wife of the second brother fall before the youngest brother born after the death of the first brother. In that case, the first wife certainly goes out and is exempt from both ḥalitza and levirate marriage, since she is to him the wife of a brother with whom he did not coexist. The second, however, was never effectively the rival wife of the first brother’s wife, as the first brother’s wife had only been betrothed by levirate betrothal and was not fully married to the second brother. Therefore, she performs ḥalitza and may not enter into levirate marriage.

כֵּיצַד אֵשֶׁת אָחִיו שֶׁלֹּא הָיָה בְעוֹלָמוֹ. שְׁנֵי אַחִים, וּמֵת אֶחָד מֵהֶם, וְנוֹלַד לָהֶן אָח, וְאַחַר כָּךְ יִבֵּם הַשֵּׁנִי אֶת אֵשֶׁת אָחִיו, וָמֵת, הָרִאשׁוֹנָה יוֹצֵאת מִשּׁוּם אֵשֶׁת אָחִיו שֶׁלֹּא הָיָה בְעוֹלָמוֹ, וְהַשְּׁנִיָּה מִשּׁוּם צָרָתָהּ. עָשָׂה בָהּ מַאֲמָר וָמֵת, הַשְּׁנִיָּה חוֹלֶצֶת וְלֹא מִתְיַבֶּמֶת:


כיצד אשת אחיו שלא היה בעולמו – she exempts her rival/co-wife [from the requirement of levirate marriage or Halitzah].

ונולד להן אח – and was found to be dependent upon a levir, but upon him she is prohibited because of [the prohibition of] the brother’s wife, for he was not a contemporary [having not yet been born].

ואח"כ יבם השני את אשת אחיו – and he has another wife.

ומת – without children.

הראשונה – she is the wife of the first brother who fell before him already one time, goes forth because of [the prohibition of] being the wife of his brother who had not yet been born.

עשה בה – this one who died.

מאמר – the explanation he betrothed her with money (as opposed to a document or an act of sexual intercourse) and with a Yevamah/widow of his deceased brother who died without issue, betrothal thorugh money is not a complete Kiddushin/betrothal, but rather, from the words of the Scribes/Soferim, the Yevamah is not acquired to the levir to become like a completely married woman until he comes upon her and he didn’t have sufficient time to marry her until he died.

שנייה חולצת – and it does not exempt her because of being a rival of a woman forbidden on account of consanguinity because she is not actually her rival/co-wife.

ולא מתיבמת – because the statement of intention acquires partially and she is [also] partially a rival of a woman forbidden on account of consanguinity, and in every place where there isn’t complete Kiddushin/betrothal, she performs the act of Halitzah and does not engage in a levirate marriage.

כיצד אשת אחיו וכו׳ פוטרת צרתה:

ונולד להן אח. ומצאה זקוקה ליבם, ועליו אסורה משום אשת אחיו שלא היה בעולמו:

ואח״כ יבם השני את אשת אחיו. ולו אשה אחרת:

ומת. בלא בנים:

הראשונה. היא אשת הראשון, שנפלה לפניו כבר פעם אחת, יוצאת משום אשת אחיו שלא היה בעולמו:

עשה בה. זה שמת:

מאמר. פירוש שקידשה בכסף. וביבמה קידושין של כסף אינם קידושין גמורים אלא מדברי סופרים, שאין היבמה נקנית ליבם להיות כאשת איש גמורה עד שיבא עליה, וזה לא הספיק לכונסה עד שמת:

שניה חולצת. ולא מפטרה משום צרת ערוה, דלאו צרתה ממש היא:

ולא מתיבמת. משום דמאמר קונה מקצת והויא לה צרת ערוה במקצת. וכל מקום שאין שם קדושין גמורים חולצת ולא מתיבמת: