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Mishnayos Yevamos Perek 11 Mishnah 5

יבמות פרק י"א משנה ה׳


In the case of a priestess whose offspring was mixed with her maidservant’s offspring, they may partake of teruma, as both a priest and the slave of a priest partake of teruma. And they receive one share of teruma in the granary. And they may not become ritually impure with impurity imparted by a corpse, as each of them might be a priest. And they may not marry women, whether unflawed women, who may not marry a slave, or women unfit to marry into the priesthood, as with regard to each of them it is uncertain whether he is a priest or a slave. If the mixed sons matured and freed each other, they may marry women fit to marry into the priesthood, as a freed slave may marry such women. However, neither may marry a woman unfit for the priesthood, in case he is a priest. And they may not become ritually impure with impurity imparted by a corpse, since they are uncertain priests. However, if they became impure, they do not receive the forty lashes, as each of them might not be priest. And they may not partake of teruma, as one of them is not a priest. However, if they ate teruma unwittingly they do not pay the principal and the additional fifth, as each of them might be a priest. And they do not receive a share of teruma in the granary, as neither can prove that he is a priest. However, they may sell the teruma that they remove from their own produce, and although they may not eat it, the money is theirs. Since it cannot be proven with regard to either of them that he is not a priest, teruma cannot be appropriated from them. And they do not receive a share of the consecrated offerings of the Temple, as each of them might not be a priest. And one may not give them consecrated offerings to sacrifice for the same reason. However, the hides of their own offerings may not be appropriated from their possession, as it cannot be proven with regard to either of them that he is not a priest. And they are exempt from giving a priest the foreleg, and from giving him the jaw, and from giving him the maw of their non-consecrated kosher animals. And with regard to either of them, the firstling of his kosher animal should graze until it becomes unfit to be sacrificed, i.e., until it gets a blemish. It is against his interest to sacrifice the animal before it gets a blemish, thereby letting it be eaten by the priests. Once it gets a blemish, it cannot be appropriated from him. Since he is possibly a priest, he may claim that the animal is the property of a priest. The animal then becomes his private property, and he may eat it if he wishes. And in general, we place upon him both the stringencies of priests and the stringencies of Israelites.

כֹּהֶנֶת שֶׁנִּתְעָרֵב וְלָדָּהּ בִּוְלַד שִׁפְחָתָהּ, הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ אוֹכְלִים בַּתְּרוּמָה, וְחוֹלְקִים חֵלֶק אֶחָד בַּגֹּרֶן, וְאֵינָן מִטַּמְּאִין לְמֵתִים, וְאֵין נוֹשְׂאִין נָשִׁים, בֵּין כְּשֵׁרוֹת בֵּין פְּסוּלוֹת. הִגְדִּילוּ הַתַּעֲרֹבוֹת, וְשִׁחְרְרוּ זֶה אֶת זֶה, נוֹשְׂאִין נָשִׁים רְאוּיוֹת לַכְּהֻנָּה, וְאֵינָן מִטַּמְּאִין לְמֵתִים. וְאִם נִטְמְאוּ, אֵינָן סוֹפְגִין אֶת הָאַרְבָּעִים. וְאֵינָן אוֹכְלִים בַּתְּרוּמָה. וְאִם אָכְלוּ, אֵינָן מְשַׁלְּמִין קֶרֶן וָחֹמֶשׁ. וְאֵינָן חוֹלְקִין עַל הַגֹּרֶן. וּמוֹכְרִין אֶת הַתְּרוּמָה, וְהַדָּמִים שֶׁלָּהֶם. וְאֵינָן חוֹלְקִים בְּקָדְשֵׁי הַמִּקְדָּשׁ, וְאֵין נוֹתְנִין לָהֶם קָדָשִׁים, וְאֵין מוֹצִיאִין שֶׁלָּהֶם מִיָּדָם, וּפְטוּרִין מִן הַזְּרֹעַ וּמִן הַלְּחָיַיִם וּמִן הַקֵּבָה, וּבְכוֹרוֹ יְהֵא רוֹעֶה עַד שֶׁיִּסְתָּאֵב, וְנוֹתְנִין עָלָיו חֻמְרֵי כֹהֲנִים וְחֻמְרֵי יִשְׂרְאֵלִים:


אוכלים בתרומה – that both a Kohen and the servant of a Kohen consume heave-offering/priest’s due.

וחולקים חלק אחד – It explains in the Gemara (Tractate Yevamot 99b), that this is what he said: and they divide the portion as one; if both of them to the threshing floor/granary as one, they give it to them, but if it was this one (i.e., the children of the Kohen) without that one (i.e., the children of the maidservant), they do not divide it among them for this Tanna holds that they don’t distribute heave-offering/priest’s due to a servant, other than his master is with him (which are the words of Rabbi Yehuda according to the Baraita).

בין כשרות בין פסולות – for each one of them is a doubtful Kohen and a doubtful slave, those who are pure [Kohanim] are forbidden to a slave and those who are invalidated are forbidden to a Kohen, and a doubtful prohibition [is judged] towards stringency.

סופגין את המ' – as each one says, “I am not a Kohen.”

אין משלמין – for each one says, “I am a Kohen” and they don’t remove from doubt.

ומוכרין התרומה – the heave offering of their grain, they do not give it to the Kohen when they separate it, for each one can say, “bring proof that I am not a Koen” but nevertheless, it is possible for them to consume it, but rather they sell it to a Kohen and the money is theirs.

ואין חולקים בקדשי המקדש – such as, for example, sacred hides and for each one of these, we state, “ring proof that you are a Kohen and take.”

ואין נותנין להם קדשים – to offer up.

ואין מוציאין שלהם – such as if was born to them a first-born, we don’t remove it from their hands and let it pasture/graze until it becomes unfit for sacrifice.

חומרי ישראל וחומרי כהנים – it explains in he the Gemara (Tractate Yevamot 100a) that their meal offerings are grabbed like the meal-offering of the Israelite and is offered on its own and its remnants are not consumed like the Israelite meal-offering, but rather it is burned like the meal-offering of the Kohanim which is burnt entirely.

אוכלים בתרומה. דאחד כהן ואחד עבד כהן אוכלין בתרומה:

וחולקים חלק אחד. מפרש בגמרא דהכי קאמר, וחולקים חלק כאחד, אם באו שניהם על הגורן כאחד נותנים להם, אבל זה בלא זה אין חולקין להם, דקסבר האי תנא אין חולקים תרומה לעבד אלא אם כן רבו עמו:

בין כשרות בין פסולות. דכל אחד מהם ספק כהן ספק עבד, כשרות אסורות לעבד ופסולות אסורות לכהן, וספק איסורא לחומרא:

אין סופגין את הארבעים. דכל חד אמר אנא לאו כהן אנא:

אין משלמין. דכל חד אמר כהן אנא, ולא מפקינן ממונא מספיקא:

ומוכרין התרומה. תרומת תבואתן אין נותנין אותה לכהן כשמפרישין אותה, דכל חד אמר אייתי ראיה דלאו כהן אנא, ומכל מקום אי אפשר להן לאכלה אלא מוכרין אותה לכהן והדמים שלהן:

ואין חולקים בקדשי המקדש. כגון עורות קדשים, דלכל חד מינייהו אמרינן אייתי ראיה דכהן את ושקול:

ואין נותנין להם קדשים. להקריב:

ואין מוציאין שלהם. כגון אם נולד להם בכור אין מוציאין אותו מידן, וירעה עד שיסתאב:

חומרי ישראל וחומרי כהנים. מפרש בגמרא, שמנחתן נקמצת כמנחת ישראל וקרב בפני עצמו, ואין שייריה נאכלין כמנחת ישראל אלא נשרפת כמנחת כהנים שהיא כליל: