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Mishnayos Temurah Perek 3 Mishnah 4

תמורה פרק ג׳ משנה ד׳


The mishna objects: But even according to the Rabbis, isn’t a gift offering also a burnt offering? And what then is the difference between the statement of Rabbi Elazar and the statement of the Rabbis? Rather, the Rabbis are referring to a communal burnt offering and Rabbi Elazar is referring to an individual burnt offering, and there are several differences between these two offerings: When the animal comes as an individual burnt offering, the owner places his hands upon it and brings the accompanying meal offering and libations, and its libations come from his own property. If the owner of the animal was a priest, the right to perform its Temple service and the right to its hide are his. And when it is a communal gift offering, the owner of the animal that was sold does not place his hands upon it, as there is no placing of hands for communal offerings, and he does not bring its libations; rather, its libations are brought from the property of the community. Furthermore, although the owner of the animal that was sold is a priest, the right to perform its Temple service and the right to its hide are divided among the members of the priestly watch serving in the Temple that week.

וַהֲלֹא אַף הַנְּדָבָה עוֹלָה הִיא. מַה בֵּין דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר לְדִבְרֵי חֲכָמִים. אֶלָּא, בִּזְמַן שֶׁהִיא בָאָה חוֹבָה, הוּא סוֹמֵךְ עָלֶיהָ וּמֵבִיא עָלֶיהָ נְסָכִין, וּנְסָכֶיהָ מִשֶּׁלּוֹ. וְאִם הָיָה כֹהֵן, עֲבוֹדָתָהּ וְעוֹרָהּ שֶׁלּוֹ. וּבִזְמַן שֶׁהִיא בָאָה נְדָבָה, אֵינוֹ סוֹמֵךְ עָלֶיהָ וְאֵינוֹ מֵבִיא עָלֶיהָ נְסָכִין, וּנְסָכֶיהָ מִשֶּׁל צִבּוּר. אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא כֹהֵן, עֲבוֹדָתָהּ וְעוֹרָהּ שֶׁל אַנְשֵׁי מִשְׁמָר:


והלא אף הנדבה עולה – [the Mishnah] is explaining what is the difference between them (i.e., the first Tanna/teacher [that the animal should be left out to pasture to develop a blemish, be sold and that its monetary value should be donated to the Temple treasury as a free-will offering] and Rabbi Eleazar [that he should purchase with its proceeds a burnt-offering]).

בזמן שהיא באה חובה – when it is placed upon the individual to over it, he lays his hands upon it, etc. (i.e., he brings drink-offerings/libations on its account, and the libations are from his own funds).

ואם היה כהן – he who set aside the guilt-offering and was expiated through another [animal], and the first, an animal dedicated as a guilt-offering, has been condemned to pasture until natural death.

עבודתה ועורה – of the burnt-offering purchased from the proceeds of that guilt-offering, is his, and he himself offers and takes the hide, and even if it is not from the priestly watch of that week.

אינו סומך עליה – for it is the free-will donation of the community which does not have the laying of the hands.

ואע"פ שהוא כהן עבודתה ועורה לאנשי משמר – for it is of the community, and a Kohen from a different priestly watch is not permitted to offer it up, as it is written (Deuteronomy 18:8): “[They shall receive equal shares of the dues,] without regard to personal gifts or patrimonies,” what the patrimonies sold to each other, you take on your Shabbat, and I will take on my Shabbat. And the Halakha is according to the Sages.

והלא אף הנדבה עולה. פירושי קמפרש מאי בינייהו:

בזמן שהיא באה חובה. שהיא מוטלת על היחיד להקריבה. סומך עליה כו׳:

ואם היה כהן. אותו שהפריש אשם ונתכפר באחר ונתקו לראשון ברעייה:

עבודתה ועורה. של עולה הקנויה מדמי אותו אשם, שלו היא, שהוא עצמו מקריבה ונוטל העור, ואפילו אינו מן המשמר של אותה שבת:

אינו סומך עליה. דנדבת צבור אין בהם סמיכה:

ואע״פ ששהוא כהן עבודתה ועורה לאנשי משמר. שהרי של צבור הוא ואין כהן של משמר אחר רשאי להקריב, דכתיב (דברים י״ח) לבד ממכריו על האבות, מה שמכרו האבות זה לזה, טול אתה את שבתך ואני אטול את שבתי. והלכה כדברי חכמים: