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Mishnayos Temurah Perek 1 Mishnah 6

תמורה פרק א׳ משנה ו׳


The birds sacrificed as offerings, i.e., doves and pigeons, and the meal offerings do not render non-sacred items exchanged for them substitutes, as only the term “an animal” is stated with regard to substitution, in the verse: “And if he substitutes an animal for an animal” (Leviticus 27:10). A consecrated animal belonging to the community or to partners does not render a non-sacred animal exchanged for it a substitute, as it is stated in the same verse: “He shall neither exchange it nor substitute it.” One derives from the singular pronoun in the verse that an individual renders a non-sacred animal a substitute, but the community and partners do not render a non-sacred animal a substitute. Items consecrated for Temple maintenance do not render non-sacred items exchanged for them substitutes. Rabbi Shimon said: The fact that animals belonging to the community or partners do not render animals exchanged for them substitutes is derived as follows: The animal tithe was included in the category of all offerings, and why was it singled out in the verse: “And all the tithe of the herd or the flock, whatever passes under the rod, the tenth shall be sacred unto the Lord. He shall not inquire whether it is good or bad, neither shall he substitute for it; and if he substitutes it, then both it and that for which it is substituted shall be sacred” (Leviticus 27:32–33)? Rabbi Shimon explains: It was singled out to juxtapose substitution to the animal tithe, to tell you: Just as the animal tithe is brought exclusively as an individual offering, so too, all offerings that render their substitutes sacred are individual offerings, excluding communal offerings and the offerings of partners from the halakha of substitution. And just as the animal tithe is an offering sacrificed on the altar, so too, all offerings that render their substitutes sacred are offerings sacrificed on the altar, excluding items consecrated for Temple maintenance from the halakha of substitution.

הָעוֹפוֹת וְהַמְּנָחוֹת אֵינָן עוֹשִׂין תְּמוּרָה, שֶׁלֹּא נֶאֱמַר אֶלָּא (ויקרא כז) בִּבְהֵמָה. הַצִּבּוּר וְהַשֻּׁתָּפִים אֵינָן עוֹשִׂים תְּמוּרָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שם), לֹא יָמִיר אֹתוֹ, יָחִיד עוֹשֶׂה תְמוּרָה, לֹא הַצִּבּוּר וְלֹא הַשֻּׁתָּפִים עוֹשִׂים תְּמוּרָה. קָרְבְּנוֹת בֶּדֶק הַבַּיִת אֵינָן עוֹשִׂין תְּמוּרָה. אָמַר רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן, וַהֲלֹא הַמַּעֲשֵׂר בַּכְּלָל הָיָה, וְלָמָּה יָצָא, לְהָקִישׁ אֵלָיו, מַה מַּעֲשֵׂר קָרְבַּן יָחִיד, יָצְאוּ קָרְבְּנוֹת צִבּוּר. מַה מַּעֲשֵׂר קָרְבַּן מִזְבֵּחַ, יָצְאוּ קָרְבְּנוֹת בֶּדֶק הַבָּיִת:


שלא נאמר אלא בבהמה – but if he exchanged, he should exchange/substitute an animal/בהמה for an animal/בהמה.

קדשי בדק הבית אין עושין תמורה – for concerning exchange/substitution, it is written (Leviticus 27:9): “(If [the vow concerns] any animal that may be brought) as an offering [to the LORD],” and the Holy Things for the repair of the Temple house are not called an offering/קרבן .

אמר ר' שמעון והלא המעשר בכלל היה – Rabbi Shimon holds that the Holy Things for the repair of the Temple are called קרבן/an offering, therefore, we don’t derive it that it produces a substitute other than from here.

But isn’t the tithe part of this category, in the category of all the Holy Things that produce a substitute/exchange?

ולמה יצא – as it is written regarding it that it makes a substitution, as it is written regarding a tithe (Leviticus 27:33): “He must not look out for good as against bad, or make substitution for it.”

מה מעשר קרבן יחיד – and one performs an exchange [with an individual sacrifice], even every sacrifice/offering of an individual one can make a substitution.

יצאו קרבנות צבור – and those of partners, but the tithe is not have partnership, as we learned in the last chapter of [Tractate] Bekhorot [56b] (it is listed incorrectly in the commentary of Bartenura itself) (Numbers 18:15): “[The first issue of the womb of every being, man or beast, that is offered to the LORD] shall be yours/יהיה לך “ – but not in partnership.

יצאו קרבנות בדק הבית – and even though they are called an offering/קרבן – as it is written (Numbers 31:50): “So we have brought as an offering to the LORD such articles of gold as each of us came upon,” it is not the offering of the altar like the tithe. But the Sages stated above that the Holy Things for the Repair of the Temple house are not called an offering/קרבן, as they hold, assuming that it they are called the “offering of the LORD/קרבן ה' “(see Numbers 31:50), it is not called a sacrifice to God/קרבן לה' like the rest of the sacrifices of the Altar.

שלא נאמר אלא בבהמה. ואם המר ימיר בהמה בבהמה:

קדשי בדק הבית אין עושין תמורה. דגבי תמורה כתיב קרבן, וקדשי בדק הבית לא איקרו קרבן:

אמר ר׳ שמעון הלא המעשר בכלל היה. ר׳ שמעון סבירא ליה דקדשי בדק הבית אקרו קרבן, הלכך לא נפקא לן דלא עבדי תמורה אלא מהכא:

והלא מעשר בכלל היה. בכלל כל הקדשים דעבדי תמורה:

ולמה יצא. דכתיב בדידיה דעושה תמורה, דכתיב גבי מעשר לא יבקר בין טוב לרע ולא ימירנו:

מה מעשר קרבן יחיד. ועושה תמורה, אף כל קרבן יחיד עושה תמורה:

יצאו קרבנות צבור. והשותפין. דמעשר ליתיה בשותפות, כדאמרינן בפרק בתרא דבכורות [דף כ״ו], יהיה לך ולא של שותפות:

יצאו קרבנות בדק הבית. דאע״ג דאקרו קרבן כדכתיב (כמדבר ל״א) ונקרב את קרבן ה׳ איש אשר מצא כלי זהב, אינו קרבן מזבח כמעשר. ורבנן דאמרי לעיל קדשי בדק הבית לא אקרו קרבן, סברי, נהי דקרבן ה׳ אקרו, קרבן לה׳ לא אקרו כשאר קרבנות מזבח: