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Mishnayos Tamid Perek 3 Mishnah 1

תמיד פרק ג׳ משנה א׳


Four lotteries were conducted in the Temple each day in order to determine which priests would perform which of the Temple rites. After describing the first of the lotteries, for removal of the ashes, the tanna describes the second lottery. The priest appointed to oversee the lotteries said to the priests: Come and participate in the lottery to determine who is the priest who will slaughter the daily offering; and who is the priest who will sprinkle its blood; and who will remove the ashes from the inner, golden altar; and who will remove the ashes from the Candelabrum; and who will take the limbs of the daily offering up to the ramp to be burned afterward. The limbs of the daily offering taken up to the ramp were divided among the priests in the following manner: One priest took the head and the right hind leg up to the altar; and a second took the two forelegs; a third the haunch, including the lower spine and the tail, and the left hind leg; a fourth the breast and the cud, i.e., the neck and appended internal organs, including the windpipe, liver, and heart; and a fifth the two flanks; a sixth the innards; and a seventh the fine flour from the accompanying meal offering; and an eighth the griddle-cake offering; and a ninth the wine for the libation. They conducted the lottery to determine the thirteen tasks, i.e., slaughtering, carrying the nine items or pairs of items, sprinkling the blood, removing the ashes from the inner altar, and removing the ashes from the Candelabrum. And whoever won that lottery won the right to perform the slaughter, and the twelve priests standing to his right won the other privileges.

אָמַר לָהֶם הַמְמֻנֶּה, בֹּאוּ וְהָפִיסוּ, מִי שׁוֹחֵט, מִי זוֹרֵק, מִי מְדַשֵּׁן מִזְבֵּחַ הַפְּנִימִי, מִי מְדַשֵּׁן אֶת הַמְּנוֹרָה, מִי מַעֲלֶה אֵבָרִים לַכֶּבֶשׁ, הָרֹאשׁ וְהָרֶגֶל, וּשְׁתֵּי הַיָּדַיִם, הָעֹקֶץ וְהָרֶגֶל, הֶחָזֶה וְהַגֵּרָה, וּשְׁתֵּי דְפָנוֹת, הַקְּרָבַיִם, וְהַסֹּלֶת, וְהַחֲבִתִּים, וְהַיָּיִן. הֵפִיסוּ, זָכָה מִי שֶׁזָּכָה:


אמר להם הממונה בואו והפיסו – take an allotment [by counting out a certain number on the raised fingers of those among whom a decision is to be made]. This is the lottery that is explained in chapter 2 of [Tractate] Yoma [Mishnah 2].

מי שוחט – even though ritual slaughtering is ritually permitted by a non-Kohen (literally, “foreigner”), for it is the beginning of the Divine Service of the daily offering and is beloved to them, for if they don’t take an allotment, they will come to quarrel about it and they will come to danger (i.e., loss of life).

מי זורק – who receives the blood, he is the one who sprinkles, for the essence of the sacrifice is the sprinkling, and for that reason, it (i.e., the Mishnah) took it.

מי מדשן מזבח הפנימי – the person who clears the ashes from the inner court is he one who offers the incense. And since the removal of the ashes is the beginning of the Divine Service of incense, it (i.e., the Mishnah) took it. And similarly, the removal of ashes from the Menorah/candelabrum is the beginning of the kindling [of the Menorah]. And the removal of the ashes of the inner altar and the Menorah would precede the slaughtering of the daily offering. But that it (i.e., the Mishnah) mentions in the order of the allotment – the slaughtering and sprinkling at the opening clause is beause they are the essence of the Divine Service.

העוקץ – the tail.

החזה – all [the permitted fat] that sees the ground.

והגרה – the place where it ruminates/chews the cud, is [in] the neck, and through it, the windpipe is attached with the liver and the heart.

זכה מי שזכה – he who won the allotment sprinkles the blood and the one nearest him slaughters. But even though the slaughtering precedes the reception of the blood, nevertheless, because the Divine Service of the sprinkling is greater than the slaughtering, for the slaughtering is ritually permitted by a non-Kohen (literally, “foreigner”), which is not the case regarding the sprinkling, therefore, the one who is first found worthy (i.e., “the winner”), when the allotment arrives to him in sprinkling, and he second nearest him in slaughtering, and the third who removes the ashes from inner altaer and offers the incense, and the fourth removes the ashes of he candelabrum and kindles the lights, and the fifth raises up the head and leg for the lamb, and the sixth the two hands, and the seventh, the tail, which are the tail and the foot, and eighth is the breast and the chewing of the cud/ruminant, and the ninth – the two walls, and the tenth, the insides, and the eleventh, the fine flour of the meal offering of the libations, which is offered with the daily offering, and the twelfth are the sort of cakes of the High Priest, and the thirteenth is the wine of libations. All of these thirteen Kohanim leave with one allotment that is described in chapter two of Tractate Yoma (Mishnah 2).

אמר להם הממונה בואו והפיסו. הטילו פייס. הוא הגורל המפורש פרק ב׳ דיומא:

מי שוחט. אע״ג דשחיטה כשרה בזר, תקנו בה פייס, דתחילת עבודת התמיד היא וחביבה להו, אי לא יטילו פייס אתו לאינצויי עלה ואתו בה לידי סכנה:

מי זורק. מקבל הדם הוא הזורק, ומשום דעיקר הקרבן הויא זריקה להכי נקט לה:

מי מדשן מזבח הפנימי. והמדשן הוא המקטיר קטורת. ומשום דדשון תחילת עבודה של קטורת היא, נקט לה. וכן דשון המנורה תחילת ההדלקה. ודשון מזבח הפנימי והמנורה, קודם שחיטת התמיד היה. והא דמדכר בסדר הפייס שוחט וזורק ברישא, משום שהם עיקר עבודה טפי:

העוקץ. האליה:

החזה. כל [השומן] הרואה את הקרקע:

והגרה. מקום שהוא מעלה גרה, הוא הצואר, ובו מחוברים קנה הריאה עם הכבד והלב:

זכה מי שזכה. מי שעלה לו הפייס זורק את הדם, והסמוך לו שוחט. ואע״פ שהשחיטה קודמת לקבלת הדם, מ״מ מפני שעבודת הזריקה גדולה מן השחיטה, שהשחיטה כשרה בזר משא״כ בזריקה, לפיכך זכה הראשון שהגיע לו הפייס בזריקה, והשני הסמוך לו בשחיטה, והשלישי מדשן מזבח הפנימי ומקטיר הקטורת, והרביעי מדשן את המנורה ומדליק את הנרות, והחמישי מעלה הראש והרגל לכבש, והששי שתי הידים, והשביעי העוקץ דהיינו האליה והרגל, והשמיני החזה והגרה, והתשיעי שתי דפנות, והעשירי הקרבים, והאחד עשר הסולת של מנחת נסכים שהיא קריבה עם התמיד. והשנים עשר חביתי כהן גדול, והשלשה עשר יין של נסכים. כל אלו שלשה עשר כהנים יוצאים בפייס אחד כמפורש פרק ב׳ דיומא: