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Mishnayos Taanis Perek 4 Mishnah 6

תענית פרק ד׳ משנה ו׳


The mishna discusses the five major communal fast days. Five calamitous matters occurred to our forefathers on the seventeenth of Tammuz, and five other disasters happened on the Ninth of Av. On the seventeenth of Tammuz the tablets were broken by Moses when he saw that the Jews had made the golden calf; the daily offering was nullified by the Roman authorities and was never sacrificed again; the city walls of Jerusalem were breached; the general Apostemos publicly burned a Torah scroll; and Manasseh placed an idol in the Sanctuary. On the Ninth of Av it was decreed upon our ancestors that they would all die in the wilderness and not enter Eretz Yisrael; and the Temple was destroyed the first time, in the days of Nebuchadnezzar, and the second time, by the Romans; and Beitar was captured; and the city of Jerusalem was plowed, as a sign that it would never be rebuilt. Not only does one fast on the Ninth of Av, but from when the month of Av begins, one decreases acts of rejoicing.

חֲמִשָּׁה דְבָרִים אֵרְעוּ אֶת אֲבוֹתֵינוּ בְּשִׁבְעָה עָשָׂר בְּתַמּוּז וַחֲמִשָּׁה בְּתִשְׁעָה בְאָב. בְּשִׁבְעָה עָשָׂר בְּתַמּוּז נִשְׁתַּבְּרוּ הַלּוּחוֹת, וּבָטַל הַתָּמִיד, וְהֻבְקְעָה הָעִיר, וְשָׂרַף אַפּוֹסְטֹמוֹס אֶת הַתּוֹרָה, וְהֶעֱמִיד צֶלֶם בַּהֵיכָל. בְּתִשְׁעָה בְאָב נִגְזַר עַל אֲבוֹתֵינוּ שֶׁלֹּא יִכָּנְסוּ לָאָרֶץ, וְחָרַב הַבַּיִת בָּרִאשׁוֹנָה וּבַשְּׁנִיָּה, וְנִלְכְּדָה בֵיתָר, וְנֶחְרְשָׁה הָעִיר. מִשֶּׁנִּכְנַס אָב, מְמַעֲטִין בְּשִׂמְחָה:


בי"ז בתמוז נשתברו הלוחות – For behold on the sixth of Sivan, the Ten Commandmentrs were given and on the seventh in the early morning, he [i.e., Moses] went up to receive the rest of the Torah and tarried there for forty days. Hence, it was that there were found the utensils (of the Golden Calf) on the seventeenth of Tammuz and when he [I.e., Moses] came down, he smashed the Tablets.

ובטל התמיד – for there were no longer there lambs to sacrifice, since the city had come under a siege.

העמיד צלם בהיכל – The Amoraim in Jerusalem argued: one said, an idol of Manasseh, and we are speaking [here] about the First Temple [period], and the other said: an idol of Apostomos who was of the Grecian rulers and [this occurred] in the Second Temple [period].

בי״ז בתמוז נשתברו הלוחות. שהרי בו׳ בסיון נתנו עשרת הדברות ובז׳ בהשכמה עלה לקבל את שאר התורה ושהה שם מ׳ יום, נמצאו כלים בי״ז בתמוז, וכשירד שבר את הלוחות:

ובטל התמיד. שלא היה שם כבשים להקריב, שבאה העיר במצור:

והעמיד צלם בהיכל. פליגי בה אמוראי בירושלמי, חד אמר צלם של מנשה, ובבית ראשון מיירי. וחד אמר צלם של אפוסטמוס שהיה משרי היונים ובבית שני היה: