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Mishnayos Shevuos Perek 5 Mishnah 1

שבועות פרק ה׳ משנה א׳


One who takes a false oath denying that he is in possession of an item that another deposited with him is liable to return the item with an additional one-fifth of its value and to bring a guilt-offering (see Leviticus 5:20–26). The halakhot of an oath on a deposit apply to men and to women, to non-relatives and to relatives, i.e., even if the owner of the deposit and the purported bailee are related, to those fit to serve as witnesses and to those disqualified from doing so. These halakhot apply when the oath is taken in the presence of a court and when taken not in the presence of a court, as long as the oath is taken on his own, i.e., stated by the defendant himself. But if the oath is administered by others, he is not liable unless he denies the claim in court; this is the statement of Rabbi Meir. And the Rabbis say: Both when the defendant takes an oath on his own and when the oath is administered by others, once he has falsely denied the claim against him, he is liable to bring a guilt-offering and to pay restitution and an additional one-fifth, even if the oath was not administered in the presence of a court. And one is liable to bring an offering for intentionally taking a false oath on a deposit and for unwittingly taking a false oath about the intentional misappropriation of the deposit, i.e., if one knowingly took a false oath but was unaware that he is liable to bring an offering for taking the oath. But he is not liable for unwittingly taking a false oath by itself, where he mistakenly thought that he did not owe anything. And what is he liable for when he intentionally takes a false oath? He must bring a guilt-offering worth at least two silver shekels.

שְׁבוּעַת הַפִּקָּדוֹן נוֹהֶגֶת בַּאֲנָשִׁים וּבְנָשִׁים, בִּרְחוֹקִים וּבִקְרוֹבִים, בִּכְשֵׁרִים וּבִפְסוּלִים, בִּפְנֵי בֵית דִּין וְשֶׁלֹּא בִּפְנֵי בֵית דִּין, מִפִּי עַצְמוֹ. וּמִפִּי אֲחֵרִים, אֵינוֹ חַיָּב עַד שֶׁיִּכְפֹּר בּוֹ בְּבֵית דִּין, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי מֵאִיר. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, בֵּין מִפִּי עַצְמוֹ בֵּין מִפִּי אֲחֵרִים, כֵּיוָן שֶׁכָּפַר בּוֹ, חַיָּב. וְחַיָּב עַל זְדוֹן הַשְּׁבוּעָה וְעַל שִׁגְגָתָהּ עִם זְדוֹן הַפִּקָּדוֹן, וְאֵינוֹ חַיָּב עַל שִׁגְגָתָהּ. וּמַה חַיָּב עַל זְדוֹנָהּ, אָשָׁם בְּכֶסֶף שְׁקָלִים:


שבועת הפקדון. באנשים ובנשים – since the Tanna/teacher [of the Mishnah] taught regarding the oath of testimony (see Tractate Shevuot, Chapter 4, Mishnah 1) that it applies to men, but not to women, he taught here that it applies to everyone.

בקרובים – that the owner of the deposit is a relative of the one with whom the deposit is [placed].

בפני בית דין ושלא בפני ב"ד – if from his own mouth he took an oath, that he uttered an oath from his mouth or answered “amen” after an an oath and afterwards admitted to hit, he is liable for a sacrifice, as it is written (Leviticus 5:21): “by dealing deceitfully with his fellow in the matter of a deposit” of any sort.

ומי אחרים – but he did not answer, “Amen,” as for example, “I impose an oath on you that you restore to me my pledge,” and he said: “I have nothing of yours in my hand,” he is not liable until he denies in the Jewish court.

וחכמים אומרים – And the Halakha is according to the Sages.

וחייב על זדון השבועה (one is liable if he deliberately took a false oath) – as it is not written concerning it, “it is concealed,” deliberate taking of a false oath , that he recalls about he bailment and knws that he is liable a sacrifice for his denial of it.

ועל שגגתה עם זדון הפקדון (or took an oath in error, while deliberately denying bailment) – that he did not know that he is liable a sacrifice for this oath, he remembered that the bailment is with him.

בכסף שקלים – that is purchased with two Selaim, for this is written concerning the ram of the guilt offering (Leviticus 5:15): “convertible into payment by silver by the sanctuary weight, [as a guilt offering].”

שבועת הפקדון. באנשים ובנשים. איידי דתנא בשבועת העדות באנשים ולא בנשים, תנא נמי הכא לכולהו:

בקרובים. שבעל הפקדון קרוב לזה שהפקדון אצלו:

בפני בית דין ושלא בפני ב״ד. אם מפי עצמו נשבע, שהוציא שבועה מפיו או שענה אמן אחר השבועה ואח״כ הודה, חייב קרבן. דכתיב (ויקרא ה׳:כ״א) וכיחש בעמיתו, כל דהו:

ומפי אחרים. ולא ענה אמן. כגון משביע אני עליך שתחזיר לי פקדוני, ואמר אין לך בידי כלום, אינו חייב עד שיכפור בב״ד:

וחכמים אומרים וכו׳ והלכה כחכמים:

וחייב על זדון השבועה. דלא כתיב בה ונעלם. זדון השבועה, שזכור על הפקדון ויודע שמתחייב על כפירתו קרבן:

ועל שגגתה עם זדון הפקדון. שאינו יודע שחייב בשבועה זו קרבן, אבל זכור הוא שהפקדון אצלו:

בכסף שקלים. הקנוי בשני סלעים. דהכי כתיב גבי איל אשם (ויקרא ה׳:ט״ו), בערכך כסף שקלים: