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Mishnayos Shevuos Perek 3 Mishnah 1

שבועות פרק ג׳ משנה א׳


With regard to oaths attesting to the truth about an utterance, which, when violated, render one liable to bring a sliding-scale offering, there are two types that are actually four types. The initial two oaths, which relate to utterances about the future and are explicitly prohibited in the Torah, are: On my oath I will eat, or: On my oath I will not eat. These are expanded to four, to include oaths concerning utterances about the past: On my oath I ate, or: On my oath I did not eat. If one says: On my oath I will not eat, and he then ate any amount, even less than an olive-bulk, he is liable; this is the statement of Rabbi Akiva. The Rabbis said to Rabbi Akiva: Where do we find that one who eats any amount is liable, leading you to say that this person is liable? Rabbi Akiva said to them: And where do we find one who speaks and is liable to bring an offering for it, as this oath taker merely speaks, i.e., takes an oath, and brings an offering for it? If one said: On my oath I will not eat, and then he ate and drank, he is liable to bring only one offering, because an oath to refrain from eating includes refraining from drinking. If he said: On my oath I will not eat and I will not drink, and then he ate and drank, he is liable to bring two offerings.

שְׁבוּעוֹת שְׁתַּיִם שֶׁהֵן אַרְבַּע, שְׁבוּעָה שֶׁאֹכַל וְשֶׁלֹּא אֹכַל, שֶׁאָכַלְתִּי וְשֶׁלֹּא אָכַלְתִּי. שְׁבוּעָה שֶׁלֹּא אֹכַל וְאָכַל כָּל שֶׁהוּא, חַיָּב, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא. אָמְרוּ לוֹ לְרַבִּי עֲקִיבָא, הֵיכָן מָצִינוּ בְּאוֹכֵל כָּל שֶׁהוּא שֶׁהוּא חַיָּב, שֶׁזֶּה חַיָּב. אָמַר לָהֶן רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא, וְכִי הֵיכָן מָצִינוּ בִּמְדַבֵּר וּמֵבִיא קָרְבָּן, שֶׁזֶּה מְדַבֵּר וּמֵבִיא קָרְבָּן. שְׁבוּעָה שֶׁלֹּא אֹכַל וְאָכַל וְשָׁתָה, אֵינוֹ חַיָּב אֶלָּא אַחַת. שְׁבוּעָה שֶׁלֹּא אֹכַל וְשֶׁלֹּא אֶשְׁתֶּה וְאָכַל וְשָׁתָה, חַיָּב שְׁתָּיִם:


שבועות שתים. שאוכל ושלא אוכל – these are the two which are explained, as it is written (Leviticus 5:4): “[Or when a man utters an oath] to bad or good purpose –[whatever a man may utter in an oath] that implies in the future, I will not eat for a bad purpose. I will eat for a good purpose.

שאכלתי ושלא אכלתי – these are additional two from the exposition of the Sages.

מדבר ומביא קרבן – because of the abrogation/nullification of his speech, and since it is because of the abrogation of his speech, even this is an abrogation of his speech for when he says: “I will not eat”, his intention is to prohibit himself from any amount.

שבועה שלא אוכל ואכל ושתה – evn though that drinking is included with eating, he is not liable other than for one [sacrifice], for it is to him like eating and he goes back and eats in one act of forgetfulness [as the cause of the transgression].

שלא אוכל ושלא אשתה – these are two oaths to them. And even though when he stated “I will not eat,” he also forbids himself to drink, for drinking is included with eating, and he then retraced and stated: “and furthermore, I will not drink,” he should have said that an oath does not take effect on another oath, it is different here since he said at the outset [in the first part of the Mishnah], “I will not eat.” And then afterwards stated, “I will not drink,” he has revealed his intention that the “eating” that he stated at the outset [at the beginning of the Mishnah] was only for eating [and not anything else].

שבועות שתים. שאוכל ושלא אוכל. הם השתים המפורשות, דכתיב (ויקרא ה׳:ד׳) להרע או להיטיב, דמשמע להבא. לא אוכל, להרע. אוכל, להיטיב:

שאכלתי ושלא אכלתי. הם השתים הנוספות ממדרש חכמים:

מדבר ומביא קרבן. בשביל בטול דבורו. וכיון דמשום בטול דבורו הוא, אף זה בטול דבורו הוא. שהאומר לא אוכל, דעתו לאסור עצמו בכל שהוא:

שבועה שלא אוכל ואכל ושתה. אע״ג דשתייה בכלל אכילה אינו חייב אלא אחת, דהוי ליה כאוכל וחוזר ואוכל בהעלם אחד:

שלא אוכל ושלא אשתה. הוו להו שתי שבועות. ואע״ג דמכי אמר לא אוכל אתסר ליה בשתיה, דשתיה בכלל אכילה, וכי הדר ואמר תו לא אשתה הוה לן למימר דאין שבועה חלה על שבועה, שאני הכא, כיון דאמר ברישא לא אוכל והדר אמר לא אשתה גלי דעתיה דהך אכילה דאמר ברישא אכילה גרידתא היא: