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Mishnayos Shevuos Perek 2 Mishnah 2

שבועות פרק ב׳ משנה ב׳


As for the boundaries of the Temple with regard to the halakhot of impurity, the same halakha applies to one who enters the area that was part of the original Temple courtyard and to one who enters the later addition to the Temple courtyard, because the additional section is sanctified with the full sanctity of the Temple courtyard. The mishna notes: As, additions can be made to the city of Jerusalem or to the Temple courtyards only by a special body comprising the king, a prophet, the Urim VeTummim, and the Sanhedrin of seventy-one judges, and with two thanks-offerings and with a special song. Once the addition to the courtyard is made by this body and this process, it is given the full sanctity of the original courtyard area. The mishna provides certain details of the consecration ceremony. And the court would move forward, and two thanks-offerings would be brought after them, and all of the Jewish people would follow behind them. When they would reach the end of the place that they desired to consecrate, the inner thanks-offering would be eaten and the outer one would be burned. The details of this ceremony will be described in the Gemara. And with regard to any addition to the Temple that was not made with all these ceremonial procedures, one who enters there while ritually impure is not liable to bring an offering if his entry was unwitting, nor to be punished with karet, excision from the World-to-Come, if his entry was intentional.

אֶחָד הַנִּכְנָס לָעֲזָרָה וְאֶחָד הַנִּכְנָס לְתוֹסֶפֶת הָעֲזָרָה, שֶׁאֵין מוֹסִיפִין עַל הָעִיר וְעַל הָעֲזָרוֹת אֶלָּא בְמֶלֶךְ וְנָבִיא וְאוּרִים וְתֻמִּים וּבְסַנְהֶדְרִין שֶׁל שִׁבְעִים וְאֶחָד וּבִשְׁתֵּי תוֹדוֹת וּבְשִׁיר. וּבֵית דִּין מְהַלְּכִין וּשְׁתֵּי תוֹדוֹת אַחֲרֵיהֶם, וְכָל יִשְׂרָאֵל אַחֲרֵיהֶם. הַפְּנִימִית נֶאֱכֶלֶת וְהַחִיצוֹנָה נִשְׂרָפֶת. וְכֹל שֶׁלֹּא נַעֲשָׂה בְכָל אֵלּוּ, הַנִּכְנָס לְשָׁם אֵין חַיָּבִין עָלֶיהָ:


אחד הנכנס לעזרה – [to the courtyard] first.

ואחר הנכנס תוספת – that they added to it afterwards.

שאין מוספין וכו' – therefore, this is holy like the first (i.e., the courtyard).

אלא במלך – as Scripture states (Exodus 25:9): “Exactly as I show you – the pattern of the Tabernacle and the pattern of all its furnishings – so shall you make it,” this is an additional verse for expounding for the generations. For in the days of Moses, he was King and Prophet and his brother (i.e. Aaron) was the High Priest, and there were there Urim and Thumim (in the High Priest’s breast plate) and seventy elders, even so also all generations.

ובשתי תודות – with two loaves of thanksgiving offerings, and they would carry them in the circumference around until the end of the border that they sanctify, and there they consume (that is inside) and burn the second (which is outside) , and by the word of the prophet, it is consumed and by the word of the prophet it is burned, and that is exactly what is taught in the Mishnah: “the one offered inside is eaten and the one offered outside is burned.” But from Nehemiah ben Chakhliah, he completed it as it is written regarding him (Nehemiah 12:31): “and I appointed two large thanksgiving [choirs] and processions.”

ובשיר – the song that they would recite (Psalms 30:2): “I extol You, O LORD, for you have lifted me up,” But during the Second Temple period, even though there was no King and no Urim and Thumim, the Holiness that Solomon sanctified of the First Temple was a holiness for its time period and a holiness for the time to come. But the service of Nehemiah ben Chakhliah was for mere memory.

אחד הנכנס לעזרה. ראשונה:

ואחד הנכנס לתוספת. שהוסיפו עליה אחרי כן:

שאין מוסיפין וכו׳ לפיכך היא קדושה כראשונה:

אלא במלך. דאמר קרא (שמות כ״ח) ככל אשר אני מראה אותך את תבנית המשכן ואת תבנית כל כליו וכן תעשו, קרא יתירא הוא למדרש לדורות. ובימי משה הוא מלך ונביא ואחיו כהן גדול והיו שם אורים ותומים ושבעים זקנים, אף לדורות כן:

ובשתי תודות. בשני לחמי תודה. והיו נושאים אותן בהיקף סביב עד סוף הגבול שמקדשים, ושם אוכלים האחת ושורפים השניה, ועל פי נביא נאכלת ועל פי נביא נשרפת. והיינו דתנן הפנימית נאכלת והחיצונה נשרפת. ומנחמיה בן חכליה גמר, דכתיב ביה (נחמיה י״ב:ל״א) ואעמידה שתי תודות גדולות:

ובשיר. השיר שהיו אומרים ארוממך ה׳ כי דליתני (תהילים ל׳:ב׳). ובית שני אע״פ שלא היה שם לא מלך ולא אורים ותומים, הקדושה שקידש שלמה הבית בראשונה קדשה לשעתה וקדשה לעתיד לבא. ועבודה דנחמיה בן חכליה לזכר בעלמא הוה: