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Mishnayos Shekalim Perek 7 Mishnah 3

שקלים פרק ז׳ משנה ג׳


The mishna continues: With regard to meat that was found in the Temple courtyard, and it is not known from whence it came, the halakha is as follows: If it is whole limbs of the animal, in the manner that burnt-offerings are brought to the altar, it is presumed to be burnt-offerings. And if it is in small pieces, it is presumed to be sin-offerings. And if the meat, in whatever form, is found in the city of Jerusalem, as opposed to the courtyard, it is presumed to be the meat of peace-offerings, as most of the meat in Jerusalem is the meat of peace-offerings. Since it is possible that the time during which it is permitted to eat any of it has already passed, both this and that, whether it is determined to be the meat of burnt-offerings or the meat of peace-offerings, its form must be allowed to decay, i.e., it must be left until it is definitely disqualified, and then it must be taken out to the place of burning, where offerings that have become disqualified are burned. With regard to meat found in the outlying areas, outside of Jerusalem, if it is in the form of whole limbs, the meat presumably comes from carcasses of animals that were not properly slaughtered, for meat unfit for eating was generally cut up into full limbs, to be fed to dogs or sold to gentiles. But if it is in small pieces, it is presumably kosher and permitted to be eaten, as kosher meat was ordinarily cut up into small pieces. And if meat is found at the time of a Festival, when meat is plentiful, so that it is generally not cut up into small pieces, then even whole limbs are permitted to be eaten.

בָּשָׂר שֶׁנִּמְצָא בָּעֲזָרָה, אֵבָרִים, עוֹלוֹת. וַחֲתִיכוֹת, חַטָאוֹת. בִּירוּשָׁלַיִם, זִבְחֵי שְׁלָמִים. זֶה וָזֶה תְּעֻבַּר צוּרָתוֹ וְיֵצֵא לְבֵית הַשְּׂרֵפָה. נִמְצָא בַּגְּבוּלִין, אֵבָרִים, נְבֵלוֹת. חֲתִיכוֹת, מֻתָּרוֹת. וּבִשְׁעַת הָרֶגֶל שֶׁהַבָּשָׂר מְרֻבֶּה, אַף אֵבָרִים מֻתָּרִין:


אברים עולות – since it has been dissected in the manner of the dissection that has been explained for burnt-offerings, it is known that they are of the burnt offerings.

חתיכות חטאות – for we consume nothing in the Temple courtyard other than sin-offerings and guilt-offerings.

ובירושלים זבחי שלמים – for most of the meat eaten in Jerusalem is that of peace-offerings.

זה וזה – whether it is found in the Temple courtyard or whether it is found in Jerusalem.

תעובר צורתן – because they have been defiled through being given up/discarding from the mind and are prohibited for eating but we cannot despise them and burn them until they have clearly been defiled. Therefore, they require that its status must be altered/let its appearance be gone (i.e., the flesh looks disfigured by beginning to decay), which is that they be defiled through portions of sacrifices left over beyond the legal time and bound to be burned or the status must be altered for peace-offerings – which is until the third day.

נמצאו בגבולים – in the cities of Israel.

אברים נבלות – for it is the manner that we sever the carrions (i.e., animals that died a natural death) into limbs and cast them into the streets so that the dogs would eat them.

חתיכות מותרים – for it was not customary to dissect the carrions to pieces but the fit parts, it was customary to cut them into small pieces to sell them to Jews or to place it into the pot, and this law applies in a city that is completely Jewish; but in a city where there are heathens, even the pieces are forbidden.

שהבשר מרובה – we don’t dissect the flesh into small pieces but cook it by limbs.

אברים עולות. כיון שמנותח כדרך הנתוח המפורש בעולות, בידוע שהן של עולות:

חתיכות חטאות. דאין אוכלים בעזרה אלא חטאות ואשמות:

ובירושלים זבחי שלמים. דרוב בשר הנאכל בירושלים הוי שלמים:

זה וזה. בין שנמצא בעזרה בין שנמצא בירושלים:

תעובר צורתן. לפי שנפסלו בהיסח הדעת ואסורין באכילה, ואין לזלזל בהן ולשרפן עד שיפסלו בודאי, הלכך בעו עבור צורה היינו שיפסלו בנותר. ועיבור צורה דשלמים היינו עד יום שלישי:

נמצאו בגבולים. בערי ישראל:

אברים נבלות. שכן דרך שחותכין הנבלות לאברים ומשליכין ברחובות שיאכלום הכלבים:

חתיכות מותרים. שאין רגילין לחתוך הנבלות לחתיכות, אלא הכשרות רגילין לחתוך לחתיכות קטנות למכרן לישראל או לתת אותה בתוך הקדרה. ודין זה בעיר שכולה ישראל, אבל בעיר שיש בה נכרים אפילו חתיכות אסורים:

שהבשר מרובה. ואין חותכין הבשר לחתיכות קטנות אלא מבשלים אותו אברים: