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Mishnayos Shekalim Perek 6 Mishnah 6

שקלים פרק ו׳ משנה ו׳


One who says: It is incumbent upon me to donate wood to the Temple, must donate no fewer than two logs for the arrangement on the altar. One who says: It is incumbent upon me to donate frankincense, must donate no less than a handful of frankincense, the amount brought with a meal-offering. One who says: It is incumbent upon me to donate gold, must donate no less than a dinar of gold. It was stated that six horns were designated for communal free-will offerings. The Mishna asks: With regard to the money designated for communal free-will offerings, what would they do with this money? The Mishna answers that they used it to purchase animals for burnt-offerings, as the meat from these offerings was offered on the altar to God and the hides were given to the priests. This midrash was taught by Jehoiada the High Priest: There is an apparent contradiction between two verses. With regard to the guilt-offering, the verse states: “It is a guilt-offering; he is certainly guilty before the Lord” (Leviticus 5:19). This verse indicates that the guilt-offering goes to God, not the priests. However, a different verse states: “As is the sin-offering, so is the guilt-offering; there is one law for them; the priest who makes atonement with it, he shall have it” (Leviticus 7:7). This verse indicates that the offering is designated for the priests alone. How can these two verses be reconciled? The Mishna explains that this is the principle: Any funds that come due to a sin-offering or due to a guilt-offering, i.e., leftover coins designated for one of these offerings, they should be used for the purchase of animals for a voluntary burnt-offering, as the meat will be offered on the altar to God, and the hides will go to the priests. In this manner the two verses are found to be fulfilled, as it is both a guilt-offering to God as well as a guilt-offering to the priest. And this halakha also explains the verse that says: “The guilt-offering money and the sin-offering money was not brought into the House of the Lord; it was for the priests” (II Kings 12:17). This verse is understood to refer to the hides given to the priests.

הָאוֹמֵר, הֲרֵי עָלַי עֵצִים, לֹא יִפְחוֹת מִשְּׁנֵי גִּזְרִין. לְבוֹנָה, לֹא יִפְחוֹת מִקֹּמֶץ. זָהָב, לֹא יִפְחוֹת מִדִּינַר זָהָב, שִׁשָּׁה לִנְדָבָה, נְדָבָה מֶה הָיוּ עוֹשִׂין בָּהּ, לוֹקְחִין בָּהּ עוֹלוֹת, הַבָּשָׂר לַשֵּׁם, וְהָעוֹרוֹת לַכֹּהֲנִים. זֶה מִדְרָשׁ דָּרַשׁ יְהוֹיָדָע כֹּהֵן גָּדוֹל, (ויקרא ה) אָשָׁם הוּא אָשֹׁם אָשַׁם לַיְיָ. (זֶה הַכְּלָל), כֹּל שֶׁהוּא בָּא מִשּׁוּם חֵטְא וּמִשּׁוּם אַשְׁמָה, יִלָּקַח בּוֹ עוֹלוֹת, הַבָּשָׂר לַשֵּׁם, וְהָעוֹרוֹת לַכֹּהֲנִים. נִמְצְאוּ שְׁנֵי כְּתוּבִים קַיָּמִים, אָשָׁם לַה', וְאָשָׁם לַכֹּהֲנִים, וְאוֹמֵר, (מלכים ב יב), כֶּסֶף אָשָׁם וְכֶסֶף חַטָאוֹת לֹא יוּבָא בֵּית ה' לַכֹּהֲנִים יִהְיוּ:


לא יפחות מב' גזרים – a person who donates an unspecified [amount of] wood should not donate less than two logs, like those that are arranged on the pile of wood on the altar in the Temple and their measurement is known. And especially, a person who donates an unspecified [amount of] wood, but a person who desires to bring even one piece of wood should bring it.

לא יפחות מן קומץ – for this is the measure of frankincense that comes with the meal-offering as it is written (Leviticus 6:8): “A handful of the choice flour and oil of the meal offering shall be taken from it, with all the frankincense that is on the meal offering, [and this token portion shall be turned into smoke on the altar as a pleasing odor to the LORD].” Just as the lifting of the meal-offering is with a handful, so also the frankincense is with a handful, but if he wants to bring even a particle/drop of frankincense, he can bring it. But a person who donates gold unspecified, should not [bring] less than a Dinar of gold, but this is when he mentioned the shape/form of the coin. But, if he did not mention a coin, but just gold, unspecified, he brings even a hook/curved pin which is a kind of small fork.

אשם הוא אשום אשם לה' – but this Biblical verse (Leviticus 5:19) is difficult from its beginning to its end. The words "אשם הוא"/”it is a guilt offering implies that his existence and his going, that which is eaten is for the Kohanim and the guilt-offering is for God, implying that it is all for God. But Jehoiada the [High] Priest expounded: "אשום אשם לה'" /”he has incurred guilt before the LORD”: Everything that comes on account of a sin and on account of guilt, for example, he separated monies for a sin-offering and a guilt-offering and there was a surplus from them, he should take that surplus as burnt-offerings. “The meat is for God, and the hides go to the Kohanim and it is found that these two Biblical verses are established. He has incurred guilt before God and a guilt offering to the priests. Where do we find this Midrash concerning Jehoiada, as it is written in II Kings (12:17) regarding Jehoiada? “Money brought as a guilt offering or as a sin offering was not deposited in the House of the LORD; it went to the priests.” But it is impossible to state that the money that was sanctified for the sake of a sin-offering and for the sake of a guilt-offering that the Priests should benefit from it, but by force, this is how it should be understood: They should make of it something from it that the Kohanim will benefit from – that is burnt offerings, for the hides go to the Kohanim.

לא יפחות משני גזרים. המתנדב עצים סתם לא יפחות מב׳ גזרים, כאותם שמסדרים על המערכה, וידוע היה שיעורן. ודווקא המתנדב עצים סתם, אבל הרוצה להביא אפילו עץ אחד יביא:

לא יפחות מן קומץ. שזהו שיעור הלבונה הבאה עם המנחה, דכתיב (ויקרא ו׳:ח׳) והרים ממנו בקמצו מסולת המנחה ומשמנה ואת כל לבונתה, מה הרמה דמנחה קומץ אף לבונה קומץ. ודוקא המתנדב סתם, אבל אם רצה להביא אפילו קורט של לבונה מביא. והמתנדב זהב סתם, לא יפחות מדינר זהב. והוא שהזכיר צורת מטבע, אבל אם לא הזכיר מטבע אלא זהב סתם, מביא אפילו צנורא שהוא כמין מזלג קטן:

אשם הוא אשום אשם לה׳ וקשה קרא רישיה לסיפיה, דאשם הוא משמע בהווייתו ובהלכתו הוא שהוא נאכל לכהנים, ואשם לה׳ משמע שכולו לה׳. ודרש יהוידע הכהן, אשום אשם לה׳, כל שהוא בא משום חטא ומשום אשמה כגון הפריש מעות לחטאת ואשם ונתותרו מהם, ילקח באותו המותר עולות, הבשר לה׳ והעורות לכהנים ונמצאו שני המקראות קיימים, אשם לה׳ הבשר, ואשם לכהנים העורות. והיכן מצינו מדרש זה ביהוידע, דכתיב במלכים ביהוידע כסף אשם וכסף חטאת לא יובא בית ה׳ לכהנים יהיו, וא״א לומר דכסף שקדש לשם חטאת ולשם אשם יהנו ממנו הכהנים, אלא על כרחך ה״ק, יעשו ממנו דבר שיהנו בו הכהנים והיינו עולות שהעורות לכהנים: