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Mishnayos Shekalim Perek 4 Mishnah 1

שקלים פרק ד׳ משנה א׳


At certain times of the year, half-shekels that had been donated to the Temple and stored in a chamber in the Temple were collected in order to be used for various purposes. The mishna asks: The collection of half-shekels, what would they do with it? They would purchase animals for the daily offerings, which were offered each morning and afternoon; and for the additional offerings, which were offered on Shabbat, the New Moon, and Festivals; and wine for their libations; barley for the omer meal-offering; and wheat for both the two loaves offered on Shavuot and the shewbread; and animals for all the communal offerings. § The guards of the sefiḥin, grain that grew without being purposely planted, during the Sabbatical Year, ensured that people did not take this ownerless grain, so that it remained available to be used for the omer and the offering of the two loaves. They collect their wages from the collection of the Temple treasury chamber. Rabbi Yosei says: One who so desires may even volunteer his services and guard the grain as an unpaid bailee. The Rabbis said to him: Even you must say that the omer and the two loaves come only from communal funds and not from any one individual. If one were to volunteer his services, he would acquire the grain for himself by guarding it and transporting it to the Temple. In that case, these offerings would have come from an individual. So that the offerings come solely from communal funds, the guards must receive payment from the half-shekels removed from the chamber.

הַתְּרוּמָה מֶה הָיוּ עוֹשִׂין בָּהּ, לוֹקְחִין בָּהּ תְּמִידִין וּמוּסָפִין וְנִסְכֵּיהֶם, הָעֹמֶר וּשְׁתֵּי הַלֶּחֶם וְלֶחֶם הַפָּנִים, וְכָל קָרְבְּנוֹת הַצִּבּוּר. שׁוֹמְרֵי סְפִיחִים בַּשְּׁבִיעִית, נוֹטְלִין שְׂכָרָן מִתְּרוּמַת הַלִּשְׁכָּה. רַבִּי יוֹסֵי אוֹמֵר, (אַף הָרוֹצֶה) מִתְנַדֵּב שׁוֹמֵר חִנָּם. אָמְרוּ לוֹ, אַף אַתָּה אוֹמֵר, שֶׁאֵינָן בָּאִין אֶלָּא מִשֶּׁל צִבּוּר:


התרומה מה היו עושין בה – that they placed into the boxes – what did they do with them?

וכל קרבנות הצבור – including incense.

ספיחים – grain that comes up on its own from what was fell off/dropped at the harvest, and we give payment to the guards (i.e., these men were hired to prevent people from collecting the aftergrowth) so that poor people would not glean/gather them in the Seventh year, and bring from the Omer on Passover and the two loaves on Atzeret/Shavuot, for these do not come other than from חדש/new grain and from the Land of Israel. And we give them their payment from the Terumah/sacred donations, for the needs of the sacrifice are considered like the sacrifice itself.

שומר חנם – and even though he acquired them for that which was ownerless, for when he guarded them for free and brought them, they are his. Rabbi Yosi holds that an individual sacrifice is different from the community sacrifice.

אף אתה אומר כו' – that is to say, if you admit that they don’t come other than frm the community, and if you guarded them for free and brought them, he takes possession of them. It is found that they do not come from the community [offerings] since the Rabbis hold that an individual sacrifice does not change into a community [sacrifice], and the Halakha is according to the Sages.

התרומה מה היו עושין בה. מה שנתנו לתוך הקופות מה עושין בהן:

וכל קרבנות הצבור. לאתויי קטורת:

ספיחים. תבואה העולה מאליה ממה שנשר בקציר. ונותנים שכר לשומרים שלא ילקטום עניים בשביעית, ומביאים מהם עומר בפסח ושתי הלחם בעצרת, שאינם באים אלא מן החדש ומן הארץ. ונותנים שכרם מן התרומה, דצורך קרבן כקרבן דמי:

שומר חנם. ואע״ג דקנה אותם מן ההפקר כששמרם חנם והביאם והרי הן שלו, רבי יוסי סבר דקרבן יחיד משתנה לקרבן צבור:

אף אתה אומר כו׳ כלומר אי אתה מודה שאינן באין אלא משל צבור, ואם שמרם חנם והביאם וזכה בהם נמצא שאינם באין משל צבור, דסברי רבנן קרבן יחיד אינו משתנה לשל צבור. והלכה כחכמים: