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Mishnayos Shabbos Perek 19 Mishnah 3

שבת פרק י"ט משנה ג׳


One may wash the baby on Shabbat, both before the circumcision and after the circumcision. And one may sprinkle hot water on him by hand but not with a vessel, in order to depart from the usual manner in which this is done. Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya says: One may wash the baby on the third day following his circumcision, even if that third day occurs on Shabbat. On the third day following circumcision, the baby is considered to be in danger, as it is stated with regard to the men of Shekhem, who were circumcised: “And it came to pass on the third day, when they were in pain” (Genesis 34:25). This teaches us that on the third day the pain of circumcision poses a danger. If there is uncertainty whether or not to circumcise a baby, and likewise in the case of a hermaphrodite [androginos] baby, who possesses both male and female genitals, one does not desecrate Shabbat to perform the circumcision, since it is not certain that the circumcision is required. And Rabbi Yehuda permits doing so for a hermaphrodite baby.

מַרְחִיצִין אֶת הַקָּטָן, בֵּין לִפְנֵי הַמִּילָה וּבֵין לְאַחַר הַמִּילָה, וּמְזַלְּפִין עָלָיו בַּיָּד, אֲבָל לֹא בִכְלִי. רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר בֶּן עֲזַרְיָה אוֹמֵר, מַרְחִיצִין אֶת הַקָּטָן בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁי שֶׁחָל לִהְיוֹת בְּשַׁבָּת, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (בראשית לד) וַיְהִי בַיּוֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁי בִּהְיוֹתָם כֹּאֲבִים. סָפֵק וְאַנְדְּרוֹגִינוֹס אֵין מְחַלְּלִין עָלָיו אֶת הַשַּׁבָּת, וְרַבִּי יְהוּדָה מַתִּיר בְּאַנְדְּרוֹגִינוֹס:


מרחיצין את הקטן – this washing is not in its regular manner, as the Tanna/teacher of the end [of the Mishnah] indicates to explain the first part [of the Mishnah] – how do they wash/cleanse? Such as to drip/sprinkle by hand, but even to sprinkle with a utensil is forbidden, and all the more so to wash in the regular manner.

ראב"ע כו' - he disputes the first teacher [of the Mishnah] and he (i.e., Rabbi Eleazar ben Azariah) holds that we wash/cleanse the [newborn] baby in the normal manner, whether before the circumcision, [or] whether after the circumcision, and on the third day [after] the circumcision also, whether the water was heated on the eve of the Sabbath (i.e., Friday) or even whether the waters were heated on the Sabbath itself, for it is a matter of danger to life and the Halakha is according to Rabbi Eleazar ben Azariah.

ספק – it is doubtful whether a child is eight months old or nine months old, for if he is eight months old, he is like a mere stone and his circumcision does not supersede the Sabbath day.

רבי יהודה מתיר באנדרוגינוס – since it is written (Genesis 17:12): “every male among you shall be circumcised,” including an androgynous individual, but [for] the first teacher [of our Mishnah], (Genesis 17:14) “his foreskin” is written, [meaning] he who is totally uncircumcised, excluding the case of someone who is half-female. But the Halakha is not according to Rabbi Yehuda.

מרחיצין את הקטן. האי מרחיצין לאו כדרכו הוא, דתנא סיפא לפרושי רישא כיצד מרחיצין כגון לזלף ביד אבל בכלי אפילו לזלף אסור וכ״ש לרחוץ כדרכו:

ראב״ע כו׳ פליג את״ק וסבר מרחיצין את הקטן כדרכו בין לפני המילה בין לאחר המילה, וביום השלישי למילה נמי בין בחמין שהוחמו בערב שבת בין בחמין שהוחמו בשבת עצמו דסכנת נפשות היא, והלכה כראב״ע:

ספק. בן ח׳ חדשים ספק בן ט׳. דאי בן ח׳ כאבן בעלמא הוא ואין מילתו דוחה שבת:

ורבי יהודה מתיר באנדרוגינוס. מדכתיב (בראשית ט״ז) המול לכם כל זכר לרבות אנדרוגינוס. ות״ק, ערלתו כתיב, מי שהוא כולו ערל, יצא זה שחציו נקבה. ואין הלכה כר״י: