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Mishnayos Pesachim Perek 8 Mishnah 6

פסחים פרק ח׳ משנה ו׳


An acute mourner, i.e., a mourner on the day of the death of an immediate relative; and one clearing a pile of stones that collapsed on top of a person, in which case there is a possibility that the person buried underneath is dead and his corpse will impart ritual impurity to the person clearing the pile; and similarly, one whom the governing body promised to release from prison on the night of Passover; and an ill person and an elderly person who are still capable of eating an olive-bulk of meat, one slaughters the Paschal lamb on their behalf, since they are currently fit to eat the Paschal lamb. However, with regard to all of them, this is only true when they are included in a group with other people who will definitely be able to partake of the lamb; but we do not slaughter the Paschal lamb on their behalf if they are by themselves, either as individuals or in a group composed entirely of such people, because perhaps they will cause the Paschal lamb to become disqualified, since there is a possibility that by the night of Passover they will be unable to partake of the Paschal lamb. Therefore, since they were registered for a Paschal lamb and it was slaughtered when they were still fit to partake of it, even if a disqualification occurred to them later, preventing them from partaking of the Paschal lamb, they are nevertheless exempt from observing the second Pesaḥ. The exemption from the second Pesaḥ is dependent not on whether they partook of a Paschal lamb, but on whether it was validly slaughtered on their behalf. This holds true except for one who was clearing a pile of stones where the person buried underneath was eventually found dead, because in such a case the person searching for him certainly stood over the corpse at some point. He had therefore become ritually impure from the outset, even before the Paschal lamb was slaughtered. Consequently, he would not have been fit even during the slaughter and will have to observe the second Pesaḥ.

הָאוֹנֵן, וְהַמְפַקֵּחַ אֶת הַגַּל, וְכֵן מִי שֶׁהִבְטִיחוּהוּ לְהוֹצִיאוֹ מִבֵּית הָאֲסוּרִים, וְהַחוֹלֶה וְהַזָּקֵן שֶׁהֵן יְכוֹלִין לֶאֱכֹל כַּזַּיִת, שׁוֹחֲטִין עֲלֵיהֶן. עַל כֻּלָּן אֵין שׁוֹחֲטִין עֲלֵיהֶן בִּפְנֵי עַצְמָן, שֶׁמָּא יָבִיאוּ אֶת הַפֶּסַח לִידֵי פְסוּל. לְפִיכָךְ אִם אֵרַע בָּהֶן פְּסוּל, פְּטוּרִין מִלַּעֲשׂוֹת פֶּסַח שֵׁנִי, חוּץ מִן הַמְפַקֵּחַ בַּגַּל, שֶׁהוּא טָמֵא מִתְּחִלָּתוֹ:


האונן – all the time that the dead is not buried he is called an Onen (during the period between death of one’s loved one and burial), and after he is buried, all the day of the death he is called an Onen. And the night afterwards he is an Onen from the Rabbis. But they did not let their words stand in place of extirpation concerning the Passover offering. Therefore, we slaughter for him for in evening it is fitting.

והמפקח בגל – that fell on a a person and it is unknown if they would find him alive or dead, we slaughter [the Passover offering] for him as he is presumed to be ritually pure until he knows that he has become defiled.

שוחטין עליהם – in the group of others.

שמא יביאוהו לידי פסול – lest he become defiled as an Onen for his dead in the midst of his being busily engaged, and opening up a heap of debris, lest we find him dead, and it is found that he formed a tent (i.e., spread himself) on the defilement [of the corpse]. And the imprisoned, lest he not leave, and we are speaking of someone imprisoned in a jail of idolaters. For even though that they promised him lest they not free him, as their mouths spoke falsehoods, but if he was imprisoned by an Israelite, such as case where they force him to divorce an invalid woman, or to pay money, we slaughter for them [a Passover offering] , even by themselves, if they promised to set them free, for the Remnant of Israel does not speak falsehoods. And if the prison was in the midst of Jerusalem, even in the hands of idolaters, we slaughter [a Passover offering] for them by themselves, for it is possible that they are entering for Passover to the prison and eating it there. But for a sick person and an elder, we don’t slaughter [the Passover offering] for them by themselves, lest the illness become heavy upon them and they are not able to eat even an olive’s bulk.

לפיכך – since at the time of the slaughtering they were appropriate and the blood is tossed upon them if a defilement befell them, like that which we said that they are exempt from performing the Second Passover.

חוץ מן המפקח הגל – and it is found that he died underneath it one needs to do the Second Passover , for he was ritually impure from the beginning prior to the slaughtering it formed a tent on the defilement from the time that he began to open up the heap of debris, and if the heap was round it certainly formed a tent upon him from the beginning, but if the heap was long, perhaps at the time of the slaughter [of the Passover offering], it had not formed a tent on the defilement, and he is exempt from making the Second Passover.

האונן. כל זמן שלא נקבר המת קרוי אונן, ולאחר שנקבר כל יום המיתה הוא קרוי אונן, ולילה שלאחריו הוא אונן מדרבנן. ולא העמידו דבריהם במקום כרת גבי פסח, הלכך שוחטין עליו, דלאורתא חזי:

והמפקח בגל. שנפל על אדם ואין ידוע אם ימצאנו חי או מת. שוחטין עליו דבחזקת טהרה עומד עד שיודע שנטמא:

שוחטין עליהם. בחבורת אחרים:

שמא יביאוהו לידי פסול. שמא יטמא אונן למתו מתוך טרדו. ומפקח גל שמא ימצאנו מת ונמצא שהאהיל על הטומאה. והחבוש שמא לא יצא. ובחבוש בבית האסורים של עובדי כוכבים מיירי, שאע״פ שהבטיחוהו, שמא לא יוציאוהו. אשר פיהם דבר שוא. אבל חבוש ע״י ישראל, כגון לכופו להוציא אשה פסולה או לשלם ממון, שוחטין עליהם אפילו בפני עצמן, אם הבטיחוהו להוציאו, דשארית ישראל לא ידברו כזב. ואם בית האסורים בתוך ירושלים אפילו בידי עובדי כוכבים שוחטין עליהם בפני עצמן, דאפשר דמעיילי לפסח לבית האסורים ואכלי ליה התם. וחולה וזקן אין שוחטין עליהן בפני עצמן, שמא יכבד עליהם החולי ולא יוכלו לאכול כזית:

לפיכך. הואיל ובשעת שחיטה ראויין היו ונזרק הדם עליהם, אם אירע בהם פסול כמו שאמרנו, פטורים מלעשות פסח שני:

חוץ מן המפקח הגל. ונמצא מת תחתיו שצריך לעשות פסח שני שהיה טמא מתחילתו קודם שחיטה שהרי האהיל על הטומאה משעה שהתחיל לפקח. והוא שהיה הגל עגול דודאי האהיל עליו מתחלה. אבל אם היה הגל ארוך, שמא בשעת שחיטה עדיין לא האהיל על הטומאה ופטור מלעשות פסח שני: