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Mishnayos Niddah Perek 10 Mishnah 6

נדה פרק י׳ משנה ו׳


Initially the Sages would say, with regard to a woman who gave birth and observed the seven or fourteen days of impurity for a male or female child, respectively, and then immersed in a ritual bath and who is observing the period of the blood of purity, that she would pour water from a vessel in her hands to rinse the Paschal offering. Although it is permitted for such a woman to engage in intercourse with her husband, her halakhic status is like that of one who immersed that day and the sun has not yet set. She therefore assumes second-degree ritual impurity and confers third-degree ritual impurity upon teruma with which she comes into contact. Consequently, she may touch the vessel, as second-degree ritual impurity does not render a vessel impure. She may not touch the water, as it is designated for rinsing the Paschal offering and therefore it is treated with the sanctity of sacrificial food, which is rendered impure by second-degree ritual impurity. The Sages then said: Her status is like that of one who came into contact with one impure with impurity imparted by a corpse, i.e., one with first-degree ritual impurity, who renders consecrated items impure. But with regard to all non-sacred items, even non-sacred items treated with the sanctity of sacrificial food, such as the water used to rinse the Paschal offering, she has second-degree ritual impurity. Consequently, it is permitted for her to touch not only the vessel, but the water inside it as well, in accordance with the statement of Beit Hillel. Beit Shammai say: The status of the woman is even like that of one who is impure due to contact with a corpse, who is a primary source of ritual impurity and renders even a non-sacred vessel impure.

בָּרִאשׁוֹנָה הָיוּ אוֹמְרִים, הַיּוֹשֶׁבֶת עַל דַּם טֹהַר, הָיְתָה מְעָרָה מַיִם לַפֶּסַח. חָזְרוּ לוֹמַר, הֲרֵי הִיא כְמַגַּע טְמֵא מֵת לַקָּדָשִׁים, כְּדִבְרֵי בֵית הִלֵּל. בֵּית שַׁמַּאי אוֹמְרִים, אַף כִּטְמֵא מֵת:


מערה למים לפסח (to pour water from vessel to vessel for purposes – to wash the Passover meat without touching the water) – from one vessel to another to wash/rinse in it the Passover meat, but she does not touch/come in contact with the water, as she is [considered] a טבולת יום/the period following immersion in a ritual bath and the nightfall, who immersed at the conclusion of two weeks [following the birth of a baby girl] but she does not have הערב שמש/her “sunset” until the eightieth day (i.e., sixty-six days after the first fourteen days have been completed) which is immediately prior to her bringing of the atonement offering and Scripture made her as one who immersed herself that day, as it is written (Leviticus 12:4): “[She shall remain in a state of blood purification for thirty-three days:] she shall not touch any consecrated thing, [nor enter in the sanctuary until her period of purification - sixty-six days for the birth of a girl -see the next verse – is completed].” And we hold that “any consecrated thing/בכל קודש [לא תגע] “ includes the heave-offering (if her husband is a Kohen) , and a person who is in this period between immersion and “nightfall,” is considered [as being in the status of] שני/second degree ritual impurity [as a result of contact with first degree ritual impurity status], so that when she pours [water from one vessel to another] she does not touch the water, but only the utensil [itself], and a person of second degree ritual impurity does not defile a utensil, but she cannot come in contact with the water, for since they are used to rinse the Passover sacrificial meat, for non-sacrificial meat that was prepared through the sanctification of something holy is considered like it is holy. {Note: If this woman touched heave-offering/Terumah, she would make the heave-offering something with a third degree of ritual impurity.)

חזרו לומר – a person who immersed him/herself that day/טבול יום – his/her law is like someone who came in contact/touched someone who is unclean with corpse uncleanness, which is first degree of ritual impurity especially regarding Holy Things. But for non-sacrificial/sacred meat, the person who has immersed him/herself that day is not regarded as someone who had come in contact with someone unclean with corpse uncleanness which is first degree of ritual impurity, but rather second degree ritual impurity, therefore, she can touch even water, for the water is non-sacrificial/sacred, and the person who has immersed that day is [considered as having only] second-degree ritual impurity, and someone with second-degree ritual impurity does not make contact with non-sacred meat third-degree ritual impurity. But even though that these waters became through the ritual purification of the Holy Things, for they were designed for the rinsing of the Passover [sacrifice] meat, they do not have legal effect on second-degree ritual impurity for them, for non-sacrificial/non-sacred meat that was made on the purity of the Holy Things is not like that which is Holy.

בית שמאי אומרים אף כמטמא מת – which is a primary source of ritual impurity and makes what it comes in contact with first-degree of ritual impurity. Such is the contact of someone who has immersed that day/טבול יום – makes it first-degree ritual impurity.

מערה למים לפסח. מכלי אל כלי לרחוץ בם את בשר הפסח. אבל במים אינה נוגעת, שהיא טבולת יום, שטבלה לסוף שבועים ואין לה הערב שמש עד יום שמונים שהוא תיכף להבאת כפרתה, והכתוב עשאה טבולת יום, דכתיב (ויקרא י״ב:ד׳) בכל קודש לא תגע, וקיי״ל בכל קודש, לרבות את התרומה, וטבול יום, שני הוא. וכשהיא מערה, אינה נוגעת במים אלא בכלי, ושני אינו מטמא כלי. אבל במים לא תגע, הואיל והם עשויין לרחוץ בהם את הפסח, דחולין שנעשו על טהרת הקודש כקודש דמי:

חזרו לומר הרי היא כמגע טמא מת. טבול יום דינו כנוגע בטמא מת, שהוא ראשון, דוקא לקדשים, אבל לחולין, לא הוי טבול יום כנוגע בטמא מת להיות ראשון, אלא שני, הלכך יכולה היא ליגע אפילו במים, שהמים חולין הן, וטבול יום, שני הוא, ואין שני עושה שלישי בחולין. ואף על פי שהמים הללו נעשים על טהרת הקודש שהרי לרחיצת פסח עשויות, לא מהני שני בהו, דחולין שנעשו על טהרת הקודש לאו כקודש דמו:

בית שמאי אומרים אף כטמא מת. שהוא אב הטומאה ועושה מגעו ראשון. כך מגעו של טבול יום, ראשון הוא: