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Mishnayos Nedarim Perek 9 Mishnah 4

נדרים פרק ט׳ משנה ד׳


And Rabbi Meir further said: The halakhic authorities may broach dissolution with him from that which is written in the Torah, and they may say to him: Had you known that through your vow you are transgressing the prohibition “you shall not take vengeance” (Leviticus 19:18) and the prohibition “nor bear any grudge” (Leviticus 19:18), and the prohibition “you shall not hate your brother in your heart” (Leviticus 19:17), and “you shall love your neighbor as yourself” (Leviticus 19:18), as well as “and your brother should live with you” (Leviticus 25:36), as he, the one prohibited by the vow, is poor and now you are not able to provide him with a livelihood due to your vow, would you have vowed in that case? If he said in reply: Had I known that it is so, that my vow involved all these prohibitions, I would not have vowed; it is dissolved.

וְעוֹד אָמַר רַבִּי מֵאִיר פּוֹתְחִין לוֹ מִן הַכָּתוּב שֶׁבַּתּוֹרָה וְאוֹמְרִים לוֹ, אִלּוּ הָיִיתָ יוֹדֵעַ שֶׁאַתָּה עוֹבֵר עַל לֹא תִקֹּם וְעַל לֹא תִטֹּר (ויקרא יט), וְעַל לֹא תִשְׂנָא אֶת אָחִיךָ בִּלְבָבֶךָ (שם), וְאָהַבְתָּ לְרֵעֲךָ כָּמוֹךָ (שם), וְחֵי אָחִיךָ עִמָּךְ (שם כה), שֶׁמָּא יֵעָנִי וְאֵין אַתָּה יָכוֹל לְפַרְנְסוֹ. אָמַר, אִלּוּ הָיִיתִי יוֹדֵעַ שֶׁהוּא כֵן, לֹא הָיִיתִי נוֹדֵר, הֲרֵי זֶה מֻתָּר:


אילו הייתי יודע שכן הוא לא הייתי נודר הרי זה מותר – after the Sage loosens/absolves him [from his vow], and all that he vowed [against] benefit from his fellow, when they release him, they don’t release him other than in the presence of his fellow, as it is written (Exodus 4:19): “The LORD said to Moses in Midian, ‘Go back to Egypt, [for all the men who sought to kill you are dead’],” the Holy One Blessed be He said to Moses: “In Midian, you made a vow; in Midian go and releave your vow.” Because Moses swore to his father-in-law (i.e., Jethro) that he would not move from Midian without his permission, as it is written (Exodus 2:21): “Moses consented to stay with the man, [and he gave Moses his daughter Zipporah as wife],” and it was necessary for the Holy One Blessed be He to go and release his vow in his presence.

אילו הייתי יודע שכן הוא לא הייתי נודר הרי זה מותר. אחר שיתירנו החכם. וכל המודר הנאה מחבירו, כשמתירין לו אין מתירין אלא בפני חבירו, דכתיב (שמות ד׳:י״ט) ויאמר ה׳ אל משה במדין לך שוב, אמר לו הקב״ה למשה, במדין נדרת במדין לך והתר את נדרך. לפי שנשבע משה לחותנו שלא יזוז ממדין בלא רשותו, דכתיב (שם ב׳) ויואל משה לשבת את האיש, והצריכו הקב״ה ללכת להתיר נדרו בפניו: