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Mishnayos Moed Katan Perek 2 Mishnah 1

מועד קטן פרק ב׳ משנה א׳


The mishna discusses one who had already turned over his olives as part of the process of preparing them for pressing, and mourning for a close relative befell him and as a result he was prohibited from engaging in work, or some other unavoidable accident occurred, or his workers misled him, promising to come but failing to do so, so that he could not press his olives before the Festival. Under these circumstances, during the intermediate days of the Festival, he may place the olives in the press and load the beam with weights for the initial pressing of the olives and leave it this way until after the Festival; this is the statement of Rabbi Yehuda. Rabbi Yosei says: He may press the olives and complete the process and then plug each barrel of oil in its usual manner. Since delay can entail financial loss, the Sages did not require him to alter the normal process of extracting the oil.

מִי שֶׁהָפַךְ אֶת זֵיתָיו וְאֵרְעוֹ אֵבֶל אוֹ אֹנֶס, אוֹ שֶׁהִטְעוּהוּ פוֹעֲלִים, טוֹעֵן קוֹרָה רִאשׁוֹנָה וּמַנִּיחָהּ לְאַחַר הַמּוֹעֵד. דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי יְהוּדָה. רַבִּי יוֹסֵי אוֹמֵר, זוֹלֵף וְגוֹמֵר וְגָף כְּדַרְכּוֹ:


מי שהפך – It is the manner of people that they turn their olives in the vat or pit where olives are packed until they form a viscid mass where they are piled up and when one wants to bring them into the building containing the tank [and all the implements] for pressing olives, and if he does not bring them into the press to grind them after he has turned them over, they become lost.

וארעו אבל – who is prohibited to do work.

או שהטעתו פועלים – that did not come to work and the Festival arrived.

טוען – upon the olives a beam of the olive press for the first time and sweep them out, ion order that a bit of the oil flows a bit so that they will not loose it, but not during the second time because they will not lose any more, and from here we learn that things that are permitted during the Festival (i.e., on the Intermediate Days of the Festival/Hol HaMoed), it is forbidden for a mourner to do them with his hand during his days of mourning, for since it (i.e., the Mishnah) teaches “an occasion for mourning befell him,” and on account of the mourning he delays until the Festival, he applies the pressing beam [for the first time] for the olives during the Festival, but during the days of his mourning, he would be prohibited to press with his hand even the first beat, but others press for him.

זולף – he pours the olives on the back of the olive press, and every matter that he pours is called זילוף/sprinkling.

וגומר – pressing them (olives) and wine/grape pressing in the olive press.

וגף – close the lip of the barrels. And the Halakha is according to Rabbi Yosi.

מי שהפך. דרך בני אדם שמהפכין הזיתים בתוך המעטן שהם צבורים בו, כשרוצים להכניסן לבית הבד. ואי לא מסיק להו לבד לטחון לאחר שהפכן פסדי:

וארעו אבל. שאסור במלאכה:

או שהטעהו פועלים. שלא באו למלאכתו. והגיע המועד:

טוען. על הזיתים קורה של בית הבד פעם ראשונה ומכביד, כדי שיזובו קצת ולא יפסידו אבל לא בפעם שניה משום דתו לא פסדי. ומהכא שמעינן דדברים המותרים במועד אסור לאבל לעשותם בידו בימי אבלו, מדקתני וארעו אבל ומחמת האבל עכב עד המועד, טוען קורה ראשונה במועד, אבל בימי אבלו היה אסור לטעון בידו אפילו קורה ראשונה. אבל אחרים טוענים לו:

זולף. שופך הזיתים על גבי בית הבד. וכל מידי דשפיך קרוי זילוך:

וגומר. סחיטתם ועיצורם בבית הבד:

וגף. סותם פי החביות. והלכה כרבי יוסי: