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Mishnayos Middos Perek 1 Mishnah 4

מדות פרק א׳ משנה ד׳


There were seven gates in the courtyard: three in the north and three in the south and one in the east. In the south: the Gate of Kindling, and next to it the Gate of the First-borns, and then the Water Gate. In the east: the Gate of Nicanor. It had two chambers, one on its right and one on its left. One was the chamber of Pinchas the dresser and one the other the chamber of the griddle cake makers.

שִׁבְעָה שְׁעָרִים הָיוּ בָעֲזָרָה, שְׁלשָׁה בַצָּפוֹן וּשְׁלשָׁה בַדָּרוֹם וְאֶחָד בַּמִּזְרָח. שֶׁבַּדָּרוֹם, שַׁעַר הַדֶּלֶק. שֵׁנִי לוֹ, שַׁעַר הַבְּכוֹרוֹת. שְׁלִישִׁי לוֹ, שַׁעַר הַמָּיִם. שֶׁבַּמִּזְרָח, שַׁעַר נִקָּנוֹר, וּשְׁתֵּי לְשָׁכוֹת הָיוּ לוֹ, אַחַת מִימִינוֹ וְאַחַת מִשְּׂמֹאלוֹ, אַחַת לִשְׁכַּת פִּנְחָס הַמַּלְבִּישׁ, וְאַחַת לִשְׁכַּת עוֹשֵׂי חֲבִתִּין:


שער הדלק (the Gate of Kindling) – because they would bring in through there the wood for the pile of the wood on the altar was brought in that burn on the altar, it is called, the Gate of Kindling.

שני לו שער הבכורות – we have the read, for there they wold bring in the firstlings whose slaughtering took place in the south.

שער המים – in the book of Ezekiel (47:1-2): “[He led me back to the entrance of the Temple, and I found that water was issuing from below the platform of the Temple – eastward, since the Temple faced east – but the water was running out at the south of the altar (i.e., southeast), under the south wall of the Temple. Then he led me out by way of the northern gate and led me around to the outside of the outer gate that faces in the direction of the east;] And I found that water was gushing from [under] the south wall,” and that is the south, which is called, “right” as it is written “north and eastward” (Psalm 89:13). And see Ezekiel in the prophecy that the waters went out from the House of the Holy of Holies thinly like the proboscides of locusts and when they reach this game, they become like the fulness of the mouth of a small jug, and that is why they call them מים מהכפכים/waters gushing (see Ezekiel 47:2- “[Then he led me out by way of the northern gate and led me around to the outside of the outer gate that faces in the direction of the east;] and I found that water was gushing from [under] the south wall.”).

שער ניקנור which is explained in Tractate Yoma (38a and Chapter 3, Mishnah 10- concerning the miracles of Nicanor with regard to the doors – see the Bartenura commentary there).

פנחס המלביש – who was appointed to dress the Kohanim at the time of their [Divine] Service, and to strip them of their clothing after the [Divine] Service and to guard the clothing of the priests.

לשכת עושי חביתין – in there they would make the meal-offering that the Kohen Gadol would offer on each day, “half of it in the morning and half of it in the evening” (Leviticus 6:13; see Tractate Tamid, Chapter 1, Mishnah 3),t and because it is stated regarding it (Leviticus 6:14): “shall be prepared with oil on a griddle,” it is called, a sort of cake.

שער הדלק. על שם שהיו מכניסים דרך שם עצים של מערכה הדולקים על המזבח נקרא שער הדלק:

שני לו שער הבכורות גרסינן, ששם היו מכניסים הבכורות ששחיטתן בדרום:

שער המים. כדכתיב בספר יחזקאל (מ״ז ב׳) והנה מים מפכים מן הכתף הימנית, והיינו דרום שקרוי ימין כדכתיב צפון וימין. וראה יחזקאל בנבואה שהיו מים יוצאים מבית קודש הקדשים דקים כקרני חגבים וכשמגיעים לשער זה נעשים כמלוא פי פך קטן, והיינו דקרי להם מים מפכים:

שער ניקנור. מפורש במסכת יומא:

פנחס המלביש. ממונה היה להלביש הכהנים בשעת עבודה ולהפשיטן אחר עבודה ולשמור בגדי כהונה:

לשכת עושי חביתין. בה היו עושין המנחה שכהן גדול מקריב בכל יום מחציתה בבוקר ומחציתה בערב, ועל שם שנאמר בה (ויקרא ו׳:י״ג-י״ד) על מחבת בשמן תיעשה, נקראת חביתין: