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Mishnayos Menachos Perek 5 Mishnah 7

מנחות פרק ה׳ משנה ז׳


Rabbi Shimon says: There are three types of offerings that require performance of three mitzvot. Two mitzvot are performed on each and every one of them, but the third mitzva is not performed in their sacrifice, meaning that each of these offerings requires two out of the same three mitzvot, but not necessarily the same two as the others. And these are the three offerings: Peace offerings brought as gift offerings by an individual, communal peace offerings, i.e., the two lambs brought with the two loaves on Shavuot, and the guilt offering of a leper (see Leviticus 14:12–14). Peace offerings brought by individuals require placing hands on the head of the animals while the animals are still alive, and waving when they are slaughtered, but there is no obligation of waving them while they are alive. Communal peace offerings require waving both while the animals are still alive and after they are slaughtered, but there is no obligation of placing hands on them. And the guilt offering of a leper requires placing hands and waving while the animal is still alive, but there is no obligation of waving it after it is slaughtered.

רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמֵר, שְׁלשָׁה מִינִים טְעוּנִים שָׁלשׁ מִצְוֹת, שְׁתַּיִם בְּכָל אַחַת וְאַחַת, וְהַשְּׁלִישִׁית אֵין בָּהֶן. וְאֵלּוּ הֵן, זִבְחֵי שַׁלְמֵי יָחִיד, וְזִבְחֵי שַׁלְמֵי צִבּוּר, וַאֲשַׁם מְצֹרָע. זִבְחֵי שַׁלְמֵי יָחִיד, טְעוּנִים סְמִיכָה חַיִּים, וּתְנוּפָה שְׁחוּטִים, וְאֵין בָּהֶם תְּנוּפָה חַיִּים. זִבְחֵי שַׁלְמֵי צִבּוּר, טְעוּנִים תְּנוּפָה חַיִּים וּשְׁחוּטִים, וְאֵין בָּהֶן סְמִיכָה. וַאֲשַׁם מְצֹרָע, טָעוּן סְמִיכָה וּתְנוּפָה חַי, וְאֵין בּוֹ תְנוּפָה שָׁחוּט:


שלשה מינין – the individual peace-offering, and the communal peace offering which are the lambs of Atzeret/Shavuot, and the guilt offering of the leper. These three kinds [of offerings] require between the three of them three rituals: laying of the hands [while the animal is yet alive, waving of the animal while alive and the waving of slaughtered animals.

שתים – rituals from these three are done with each kind, but the third is not done with them, because there are only two for each kind.

שלמי יחיד – it is written with them laying of the hands in [the Torah portion of] Vayikra (i.e., Leviticus 3:2: “He shall lay his hand upon the head of his offering and slaughter it at the entrance of the Tent of Meeting.”).

ותנופה שחוטים – regarding their breast and thigh, in [the Torah portion of] Tzav (i.e., “Command Aaron” – see Leviticus 7:31-32).

שלמי צבור – it is written with them waving while alive (Leviticus 23:20): “The priest shall elevate these – [the two lambs – together with the bread of the first fruits as an elevation offering before the LORD],” that is while they are alive, and the waving of those that are slaughtered, that the breast and thighs are theirs, as we derive from the individual’s peace offerings. But placing of the hands [on the head] is not required, for the Halakha was decided for it that there aren’t in all of the communal sacrifices other than two laying of the hands alone, the lay of the hands on the scapegoat [of Yom Kippur] (Leviticus 16:21) and [the laying of hands] on the bull for an unwitting communal sin (Leviticus 4:15).

אשם מצורע – it is written concerning it, a living waving (Leviticus 14:12): “And he shall elevate them [as an elevation offering before the LORD],” in [the Torah portion of]: “This shall be the ritual of the leper.” But laying of the hands, that it is impossible for an individual sacrifice that he should not lay his hands upon the head of his sacrifice.

אבל לא תנופה שחוט – that the All-Merciful excluded concerning the individual peace-offering, (Leviticus 7:30): “the breast to be elevated as an elevation offering before the LORD,” אותו/it – to exclude the guilt offering of the leper which does not require the elevation of something already slaughtered.

שלשה מינין. שלמי יחיד, ושלמי צבור שהם כבשי עצרת, ואשם מצורע. שלשה מינים הללו טעונים בין שלשתן שלש מצות, סמיכה, תנופה חיים, תנופה שחוטים:

שתים. מצות מן השלש יש בכל מין ומין, והשלישית אין בהם. דאין בכל מין אלא שתים:

שלמי יחיד. כתיב בהו סמיכה בויקרא:

ותנופה שחוטים. בחזה ושוק שלהן, בצו את אהרן:

שלמי צבור. כתיב בהו תנופה חיים, והניף הכהן אותם דהיינו חיים, ותנופה שחוטים, בחזה ושוק שלהן, דילפינן (מקדשי) [צ״ל משלמי] יחיד. אבל סמיכה לא בעו, דהלכתא גמירי לה דאין בכל קרבנות צבור אלא שתי סמיכות בלבד, סמיכה של שעיר המשתלח ושל פר העלם דבר של צבור:

אשם מצורע. כתיב ביה תנופה חי, כדכתיב והניף הכהן אותם, בפרשת זאת תהיה. וסמיכה, דאי אפשר לקרבן יחיד שלא יסמוך ידו על ראש קרבנו:

אבל לא תנופה שחוט. דמיעט רחמנא גבי שלמי יחיד, (ויקרא ז׳:ל׳) את החזה להניף אותו. אותו, למעוטי אשם של מצורע שאינו טעון תנופה שחוט: